Aluminum Tubing & Piping
Aluminum piping and tubing is silvery-white, soft, and ductile. The metal belongs to the boron group. Aluminum is the third most abundant element present on earth. Aluminum has low density. When exposed...
Please fill out the following form to submit a Request for Quote to any of the following companies listed on
This article will provide you with everything you need to know about aluminum 1100 and its use.
You will learn:
Aluminum 1100 is the softest of the aluminum alloys, which makes it easy to shape and form into a wide range of products for industrial and home use. It can be cold and hot worked but is frequently shaped by spinning, stamping, forging, and drawing. As a part of the1000 series of aluminum, aluminum 1100 has 99% aluminum content with the last 1% made up of copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, silicon, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. Since aluminum 1100 is so soft, it slowly work hardens, which makes it easy to form and shape.
The workability of aluminum 1100 makes it ideal for the shaping of complex and intricate shapes. It is widely used in the food industry and chemical processing. Two of the outstanding characteristics of aluminum 1100 are its high thermal conductivity, which is the highest for any aluminum, and its electrical conductivity. As with all aluminum, aluminum 1100 is exceptionally resistant to corrosion and can be used to create decorative items due to its bright polished and finished appearance.
Aluminum 1100 is available in sheets, plates, wire, and foil of various thicknesses.
As with all types of aluminum, aluminum 1100 comes in different forms, which are categorized by the changes in the types of alloys that are added and their aluminum content. The key feature of all forms of aluminum 1100 is the purity of its aluminum content, a factor that makes it so formable and workable.
Aluminum 1100 is the purist of the aluminum alloys with an aluminum content of 99% aluminum. The final 1% is made up of several small quantities of different alloys at extremely low percentages. Alloy 1100 has exceptional machinability when it has been hard tempered. Although aluminum 1100 is very soft and not very strong, it is one of the most widely used aluminum alloys due to its excellent formability.
Of the various aluminum alloys, aluminum 1100 is ideal for cold working due to its easy formability and can be shaped and formed using all of the different forming methods including bending, drawing, and spinning. The easy formability of aluminum 1100 makes it possible to manufacture it into several shapes, which include billets, coils, sheets, ingots, and foil that are formed from melting raw aluminum and casting it. Unlike other aluminum alloys, the softness and pliability of aluminum 1100 makes it possible to have it rolled for the production of different products.
|Properties of Aluminum 1100
|Density (x1000 kg/m2)
|Elastic Modulus (GPa)
|Tensile Strength (MPa)
|Yield Strength (MPa)
|Reduction in Area (%)
|Shear Strength (MPa)
|Thermal Expansion (10-6/°C)
|Thermal Conductivity (W/m-k)
|Electric Resistivity (10-9 0-m)
Aluminum alloy 1145 has a slightly higher aluminum content than aluminum 1100 at 99.45%. The higher aluminum content of aluminum 1145 gives it better conductivity than 1100. A distinction of aluminum 1145 is its similarity to aluminum 1235, which is often used in place of aluminum 1145 due to its ready availability.
A common use for aluminum 1145 is as cold rolled foil for packaging food, drugs, medical devices, and cosmetics. In the construction industry, aluminum 1145 is used for thermal, hydro, and sound insulation due to its being a reflective material that sends sound waves back into the environment.
|Elements in Aluminum 1145
|Silicon, Si + Iron, Fe
|Specifications in Aluminum 1145
|0.0005 to 0.064 in
|0.375 to 60 in
Aluminum 1199 has the highest purity of aluminum with an aluminum content of 99.99%. Its low density has led to its extensive use in the aerospace industry. The purity and resistance to corrosion of aluminum 1199 has made it an ideal aluminum for use in the food and chemical industries as cookware and pressure vessels. The abundance of aluminum 1199 has made it less expensive than other metals and is the reason for its wide use. All aluminum alloys possess some level of resistance to corrosion. This is especially true for aluminum 1199. Its high aluminum content gives it exceptional electrical and thermal conductivity, which makes it ideal for use in the manufacture of conductors, capacitors, heat exchangers, and equipment for chemical production.
|Elements in Aluminum 1199
|Properties of Aluminum 1199
|Elongation at break (@tickness 1.60 mm/0.0630 in)
|Hardness, Brinell (@load 500kg with 10.0mm ball)
Aluminum 1100-H14 is referred to as a commercial grade of aluminum and is recognized for its formability, high thermal and electrical conductivity, weldability, and exceptional corrosion resistance. As with all other forms of aluminum 1100, it is a soft aluminum with low hardness.
The H14 in aluminum 1100-H14 is a reference to how the aluminum has been strain hardened. The H1 refers to the aluminum being strain hardened only by cold working while the 4 indicates that the aluminum was half hard. The scale for hardening begins with 2 – quarter hard, 4 - half hard, 6 - three quarter hard, and ends at 8 - fully hard.
Strain hardening for series 1xxx falls into four groupings with H1 being strain hardened only. The other categories of strain hardening include strain hardening with annealing, stabilizing, or oven curing with a coating. These letters and numbering are used to describe the tempering of aluminum alloys. None of the alloys in series 1xxx are heat treatable.
|Elements in Aluminum 1100-H14
|0.05 - 0.2%
|Mechanical Properties of Aluminum 1100-H14
|Bending Fatigue Strength
|Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness
|22.0 35.0 MPa.√m
|110.0 - 145.0 MPa
Aluminum compounds are found in clay and bauxite, a sedimentary rock with the most aluminum oxide content, which varies between 45% and 60%. The challenge of the extraction of aluminum from bauxite is separating the impurities, such as sand, iron, and other metals, from the aluminum oxide, which necessitates the use of a long and complicated process.
Bauxite deposits vary from being hard rock to soft dirt that can be easily mined. Over 70% of the aluminum in the world is extracted from mines in three countries with low percentages of it being mined in eight other countries. The greatest concerns in the mining and extraction of aluminum oxide from bauxite are the impurities in the form of red mud, which is a major environmental concern.
The method for extracting aluminum, known as alumina production, was developed by the Austrian chemist, Karl Josef Bayer, in the late 1880s and is known as the Bayer method. The process involves a set of four steps that cook and heat bauxite using chemicals and pressure to remove the impurities and dissolve the aluminum oxide.
There are two distinct processes used to extract aluminum from bauxite. The first of the processes is the Bayer method that is used to extract aluminum oxide or alumina. The second process is the Hall Héroult process, invented in 1886, which is a smelting method used to release pure aluminum from the alumina.
To prepare the bauxite for the extraction process, it is ground and crushed into fine pieces that are transformed into a slurry using a solution of sodium hydroxide that is pumped into a high-pressure tank, referred to as the digester. In the tank, the slurry is subjected to steam and pressure where the sodium hydroxide reacts with the alumina to form sodium aluminate. The impurities from the bauxite remain in suspension as red mud.
The mixture from the digester passes through a series of pressured tanks called blow off tanks where it is flashed to atmospheric pressure. During clarification, the red mud is separated from the sodium aluminate using cyclones called sand traps. The finer residue is settled with thickeners while solids in the thickener are removed by cloth filters. The filtered and removed residue is washed, combined, and discarded. The final clarified mixture is cooled by heat exchangers, which enhances the degree of saturation of the dissolved alumina.
Sodium aluminate from the clarification process is pumped into very tall precipitation tanks in order to separate alumina. Aluminum hydroxide crystals from previous processing are added to the mixture to speed up the separation. The added crystals attract crystals to form agglomerates, which are recycled to be seed crystals. Product sized agglomerates of aluminum hydroxide crystals settle to the bottom of the large tanks where they are filtered and washed. The precipitation process can take several days.
The agglomerates from the precipitation process are placed in rotary kilns for calcination at temperatures over 960°C (1750°F) to remove water and leave the fine, dry, white powder that is alumina. The purpose of calcination is to remove the chemically saturated water from the hydrated alumina. After calcination, alumina is referred to as anhydrous or without water. The alumina extracted from calcination is ready for the Hall Héroult process that is used to manufacture pure aluminum or aluminum 1100.
An electrochemical process, invented by Charles Hall and Paul Héroult, is used to pull pure aluminum from alumina. The Hall and Héroult process is an intricate and complex electrolysis procedure, which requires precise calculations based on the concentration of alumina and the anode cathode distance. The electrochemical process occurs in an iron tank that has a heat insulator and sloping floor for the molten aluminum to exit the tank.
Carbon anodes are immersed in a solution of molten aluminum trioxide and sodium hexafluoro aluminate or cryolite. The iron lining of the tank is lined with carbon that serves as the cathode for the electrolysis process. The aluminum ions in the mixture are quickly attracted to the cathode lining. With the tank at 950°C (1742°F), the aluminum that is deposited on the cathode lining melts and is deposited at the bottom of the tank. For the process to be successful, alumina is constantly fed into the tank such that there is sufficient amount of alumina to be dissolved.
The outcome of the Hall and Héroult is the rapid production of most of the world’s aluminum. It is an intensive high energy process that requires massive amounts of electrical power to be able to sustain the electrolytic reaction for the production of aluminum, which makes the cost of electricity a major part of the cost of the aluminum. The reliance on the Hall and Héroult process is due to the high quality of aluminum that it produces with a purity level of 99.99%.
A significant problem with the Hall and Héroult process is the excessive amount of carbon dioxide emissions it produces. Since the anodes in the electrolysis attract oxygen, the chemical reaction produces CO2 during the smelting of alumina. The control of the emissions and the prevention of their release into the air is a challenge that aluminum producers are constantly adjusting.
The aluminum from the smelting process is mixed in a furnace with other metals to form aluminum alloys, which have properties and characteristics that meet the specific needs of various applications. Fluxing is used to purify the metal before it is formed into ingots or poured into molds. The newly produced metal is shipped to producers for forging, casting, cold working, drawing, rolling, and other machining processes.
Aluminum 1100 goes directly from the smelting process to being formed into ingots or billets for shipping since it does not need to be mixed with any alloys.
Since aluminum 1100 is one of the most widely used aluminum alloys, in order to transform it into various products, the sheets, ingots, and billets of the metal are put through several different cold working processes. Although aluminum 1100 can be hot worked, it is normally shaped by drawing, spinning, stamping, forging, and rolling.
The strength of aluminum 1100 can be doubled by having it cold worked, which strengthens the metal by increasing its dislocations, defects in the metal’s atoms. As the number of dislocations increases, due to cold working, the strength of the metal increases. At room temperature, aluminum 1100 has a yield strength of 4 ksi (30 MPa). After it has been cold worked, its yield strength is several times greater at 24 ksi (165 MPa).
Rolling aluminum is used to change slabs of aluminum into a usable form to make aluminum cans and containers for takeout food. The process for rolling aluminum starts with a slab or billet that hardens and strengthens aluminum 1100 during the process. The roller mill applies force to the top and bottom of the slab, a process that continues until the desired thickness is reached.
The thickness of the aluminum determines how it is classified after rolling. Aluminum 1100 is classified as plate if its thickness is 0.25 in (6.3 mm) or more, a thickness that is used by aerospace companies for wing material and structural elements. If the final thickness is between 0.008 in (0.2 mm) and 0.25 in (6.3 mm), it is classified as aluminum sheet and is considered to be the most versatile aluminum form. For rolled aluminum to be classified as foil, it is rolled to as thin as 0.008 in (0.2 mm) for use as packaging material and insulation.
The extrusion process involves forcing an aluminum billet through a die under high pressure that has the profile of the desired shape. Aluminum 1100 is not typically used as part of the extrusion process but its formability makes it ideal for creating unique and complex shapes using extrusion. As the aluminum billet is forced along the barrel of the extruder, it is heated to soften the aluminum to make it easier to force it through the die. Since aluminum 1100 is so soft, it can be forced through the die with a limited amount of heating.
Spinning of aluminum, known as spin forming, is a process involving a disc or tube of aluminum that is rotated at high speed by a lathe. A form block is placed on the lathe with a properly sized disc of aluminum clamped against the block by a pressure pad. The aluminum disc and block are spun at high speed. During the spinning, force is applied to the workpiece that causes it to spread over the block and take its shape. The pressure that is applied during spinning can involve one tool or multiple tools to produce a final product that is smooth and wrinkle free.
Aluminum spinning is used for low or medium volume production due to the time it takes for the spinning process. It is used in place of stamping due to the cost of the tooling of a stamping die. Additionally, aluminum spinning is widely used for shapes that cannot be produced using stamping.
Annealing is a heat treatment process that improves the properties of aluminum 1100 and its formability. During annealing, aluminum 1100 is heated to a set temperature and allowed to slowly cool. Annealing is designed to relieve internal stress, increase ductility, and improve the workability of the metal. The three modes of annealing are homogenization, recrystallization, and heterogenization.
Annealing makes it possible to shape aluminum 1100 beyond its normal capacity. Various work hardening methods are used to shape and deform aluminum, which makes the metal resistant to deforming or stretching. Eventually, the grain structure of the aluminum is unable to withstand further stress without breaking, cracking, or warping. To overcome these difficulties, aluminum 1100 is annealed for a specified length of time to reset the grain structure to make it possible to do further shaping.
The forging process for aluminum is similar to the forging processes for other metals, which includes the use of pressure using a press or hammers. The process of forging requires several steps in order to reach the appropriate tolerance for the completed part. Although forging is a force and pressure method, it still requires proper planning and preparation.
The first step in the forging of aluminum 1100 is the selection of the proper sized slab or billet that has to be cleaned to remove any debris or impurities. Once the billet is cleaned, it is heated to soften the aluminum to make it easier to shape. The heating process is precision controlled such that aluminum 1100 is heated to the correct temperature to achieve the desired shape. The forging temperature for aluminum 1100 is much lower than the temperatures for other alloys and metals and ranges between 371°C and 510°C (700°F and 950°F).
The force applied in the forging process can be in the form of a press or hammer. Forging includes upsetting, drawing out, and finishing of the aluminum billet with upsetting being used to widen and shorten the end of the billet. The desired length of the workpiece is achieved by drawing out, which stretches the workpiece to the desired dimensions. Once upsetting and drawing out are completed, during finishing, the shape of the workpiece is refined, and excess material is removed.
The process of forging places a great deal of stress on the aluminum material, which requires that it be cooled to room temperature. The cooling process has to be strictly controlled to avoid thermal shock. As workpieces get larger, the time of the cooling process gets longer.
As with all metal products, the final step in the forging process is to machine the product by drilling holes, cutting off waste, polishing, and coating. The machining aspect of the forging process is critical to the quality and performance of the final part. When completed properly, the final result is a perfectly produced part.
There are several processes that can be used to weld aluminum and include stick welding, which can be used but is not recommended since it can be messy. The most common methods used to weld aluminum are tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and metal inert gas (MIG) welding. Although TIG and MIG are the most common methods, other methods used to weld aluminum are laser, resistance, and shielded arc welding.
The TIG method requires AC current and uses argon gas as the shield gas. The filler material is fed into a puddle and does not require a feeding wire. The process is very clean and does not contaminate the aluminum. MIG welding welds faster than TIG. Unlike TIG, MIG uses welding wire, which is fed into the weld by a spool gun or other method. MIG welding has the potential of contaminating the weld and necessitates that the base material and filler be clean, free of moisture, and have excellent shielding gas.
Regardless of the difficulties associated with welding aluminum 1100, the welding of aluminum 1100 is very common in several industries due to aluminums lightweight, conductivity, resistance to corrosion, recyclability, and exceptional, rich appearance.
There are an endless number of products that are made from aluminum 1100 due to its many positive properties and easy workability and machinability. The sheets, slabs, billets, and plates that are cast or rolled during the production of aluminum 1100 are shipped to manufacturers that use various processes to create marketable products. Aluminum 1100 is widely used for industrial applications as well as products for the home.
The use of aluminum 1100 in the manufacture of radiators is due to its ability to dissipate heat. Since different radiators require different profiles, aluminum 1100 is ideal since it can be formed and shaped to meet any design requirements. The fins for radiators have to be very thin but durable enough to withstand the stressful conditions. Using aluminum 1100 fins, heat dissipation happens rapidly due to the thinness of the fins.
Aluminum 1100 is used to make pots, pans, cooking tools, and other forms of cookware due to its excellent heat conductivity and resistance to corrosion. The main characteristic of aluminum 1100 is its ability to distribute heat evenly such that every part of a pot or kettle gets the same and equal amount of heat. This factor ensures that food items are cooked properly.
Aluminum 1100 is commonly used as a roofing material for commercial, industrial, and residential buildings. The difference between the types of aluminum 1100 roofing materials is their thicknesses with residential roofing being 0.30 in to 0.032 in thickness while commercial aluminum 1100 roofing can be as thick as 0.063 in. Aluminum 1100 roofing is used in several different environments including coastal communities, hurricane zones, heavy winter areas, and high temperature zones.
The most obvious and noticeable use of aluminum 1100 is as aluminum cans, which can be seen everywhere. For many years, there has been concern regarding aluminum polluting the environment since aluminum cans are so widely used. With the advancement of technologies and the concerns of aluminum can manufacturers, it has been discovered that aluminum 1100 is one of the easiest aluminums to recycle and repurpose.
The manufacture and production of aluminum cans is one of the fastest growing markets due to the effectiveness of aluminum cans to keep beverages fresh until opened. They are stackable, cost effective, can be filled quickly, printable, and make efficient use of shelf space.
The very short list of aluminum 1100 products listed here is a very small sampling of the many uses of aluminum 1100, which includes heat exchangers, electrical conductors, reflective surfaces, equipment for chemical processing, signage, aircraft parts and components, heat shields, sound proofing, and decorative items. The benefits and superior qualities of aluminum 1100 makes it an ideal raw material for a wide range of products.
Aluminum has become the central metal in the manufacturing of many modern-day products, especially with the rapid rise of cellphones, laptops, pad computers, and other handheld devices. The resilience, longevity, lightweight, and strength of aluminum makes it the perfect material for the manufacture of modern appliances.
When aluminum is exposed to the air, it forms a thin oxide layer on its surface that protects the metal from the effects of corrosion. In addition, if the oxide layer is damaged, it immediately repairs itself when exposed to oxygen. This aspect of aluminum alloys is one of its greatest selling points. When stored in areas without major temperature changes or moisture, aluminum 1100 will last forever without the need of any form surface treatment.
The wide use of aluminum in heat sinks is due to its thermal conductivity, which is not as good as copper. The reason aluminum is used over copper is due to its lightweight, versatility, lower cost, and the many ways that it can be formed and shaped. Aluminum 1100 has exceptionally high thermal conductivity compared to other aluminum alloys and is the reason that it is the first choice for applications that require a strong metal with high thermal conductivity.
Aluminum 1100 has a very low density, which is the reason for its lightweight. It is widely preferred over other metals for applications that require strength, durability, and lightweight. The weight of aluminum, along with its other properties, is one of the reasons for its wide use since many modern products require lightweight for convenience and easy access.
When listing the many positive aspects of aluminum 1100, reflectivity seldom makes the top of the list since the other characteristics of the metal are related to its endurance. The reflectivity of aluminum 1100 is due to its mirror like finish with aluminum 1100 having photometric qualities with the ability to control light. Signs made of aluminum 1100 are reflective, which makes them visible at night. The reflective capabilities of aluminum 1100 have been used far beyond simple street signs and have found use in highly technical scientific instruments used for sterilization.
Modern industrial operations are focused on various sustainable methods that can be used to preserve and protect the environment. A major portion of the efforts applied by businesses and companies is toward making use of the assets we have and using those assets repeatedly in order to preserve and protect our way of life for the future. Aluminum 1100 is a major contributor to the efforts to protect and preserve the environment. As a highly recyclable metal, aluminum 1100, when it reaches the end of its useful existence, is sent to aluminum recycling plants, multiple times, to be refabricated, reprocessed, and reproduced for other applications. This quality of the metal is another reason for its acceptance and use.
The purity of the aluminum content of aluminum 1100 gives the metal a very appealing appearance. Since aluminum 1100 is very light, it is commonly used in architecture as a method of accenting or highlighting the features of a building. The use of aluminum 1100 can take a plain dull structure and enhance its appearance. Additionally, aside from providing a positive appearance, aluminum 1100 can serve as protection from the sun's rays and insulation in cold weather, while providing aesthetic appeal.
Aluminum piping and tubing is silvery-white, soft, and ductile. The metal belongs to the boron group. Aluminum is the third most abundant element present on earth. Aluminum has low density. When exposed...
Aluminum is the most abundant metal on the Earth’s crust, but it rarely exists as an elemental form. Aluminum and its alloys are valued because of their low density and high strength-to-weight ratio, durability, and corrosion resistance...
Aluminized steels are steels that have been hot-dip coated with pure aluminum or aluminum-silicon alloys. This hot-dip coating process is termed hot-dip aluminizing (HAD)...
Beryllium Copper is a versatile copper alloy that is valued for its high strength and hardness, combined with good electrical and thermal conductivity. It is a non-ferrous, non-magnetic, and non-sparking metal alloy...
Copper is a ductile, malleable, and reddish-gold metal with the capacity to effectively conduct heat and electricity. Brass and bronze, two commonly used alloys, are created when copper is combined with...
The copper sheet is a highly malleable and workable metal with outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. Copper (Cu) is a reddish, very ductile metal that belongs to Group 11 of the periodic table...
Metals are a group of substances that are malleable, ductile, and have high heat and electrical conductivity. They can be grouped into five categories with nickel falling in the category known as transition metals...
Stainless steel grade 304 is an austenite stainless steel that is the most widely used and versatile of the various grades of stainless steel. It is a part of the T300 series stainless steels with...
Stainless steel is a type of steel alloy containing a minimum of 10.5% chromium. Chromium imparts corrosion resistance to the metal. Corrosion resistance is achieved by creating a thin film of metal...
Stainless steel grades each consist of carbon, iron, 10.5%-30% chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and other alloying elements. It is a popular metal used in various products, tools, equipment, and structures that serve in many industrial, commercial, and domestic applications...
Steel service centers are companies that specialize in procuring steel directly from mills and manufacturers and supplying them to the customers. They are fundamental to the steel supply chain...
Stainless steel can be fabricated using any of the traditional forming and shaping methods. Austenitic stainless steel can be rolled, spun, deep drawn, cold forged, hot forged, or stippled using force and stress...
Stainless steel tubing is a multifaceted product that is commonly utilized in structural applications. Stainless steel tubing diameters and variations vary greatly based on the application requirements and are...
Titanium metal, with the symbol Ti, is the ninth most abundant element in the earth‘s crust. It does not occur in large deposits, yet small amounts of titanium are found in almost every rock...