Clean rooms are enclosures designed to facilitate sensitive research, fabrication, and other operations that must take place in the absence of dust, moisture, and other airborne contaminants.
The measure of clean room cleanliness is the number of air pollutants that can be found in an air sample. Many clean rooms are not intended to be completely sterile environments. Instead, professionals concern themselves with the amount of dust floating in the air or that can be kicked up from the floor when stepped on. This dust is microscopic and can sometimes only be measured by specialized machinery. Typically, particles are measured in microns, which is a unit of measurement that equals one millionth of a meter.
There are some cases in which sterility is a requirement; many medical research operations and testing procedures must be conducted in a sterile environment. Pharmacological studies, infectious disease testing and other highly sensitive medical research-related procedures often require the complete evacuation of any microbes that may be present in their surrounding environments. Clean room cleanliness is determined based on the presence of contaminants over 0.5 micrometers in size.
All clean room designs are intended to provide a workspace in which factors like airborne dust, variable air temperature and pressures, moisture and other atmospheric conditions can be carefully controlled.
All of the different possible clean room constructions allow professionals a range of workspace possibilities. They range from strict Class 100 clean rooms to less rigidly controlled portable clean rooms and modular clean rooms. As more and more operations came to rely on clean rooms, regulatory authorities and standards-setting organizations classified clean rooms according to their capacity for removing contaminants.
Class 1,000 clean rooms, for example, employ clean room supplies that are unlikely to release fibrous contaminants. The standards for clean room equipment used in Class 10,000 clean rooms are less strict; they can often feature soft walls and are used for less sensitive applications.
Some of the industries in which cleanrooms are used include: aerospace, semiconductor, pharmaceutical product manufacturing, scientific and clean lab research, medical device manufacturing, military and defense, biology and microbiology, optics, consumer products, nanotechnology and more.
Examples of cleanroom applications include pharmaceutical packaging rooms, powder coating enclosures, plant cultivation rooms, oil mist enclosures, powder coating and painting enclosures and IV prep rooms.
Clean Rooms - Pacific Environmental Technologies, Inc.
Modular Hardwall Clean Rooms - Modular Cleanrooms, Inc.
Positive Pressure Clean Rooms - Clean Air Technology, Inc.
Negative Pressure Clean Rooms - Clean Air Technology, Inc.
Hardwall Modular Clean Rooms - Cleanrooms by United
Custom Clean Rooms - Allied Cleanrooms
The first modern clean room was designed in 1960 by an American physicist named Willis Whitfield. He did so at the behest of the company for which he worked, Sandia National Laboratories. They were responding to the needs of the aerospace and microtechnology industries. In the early 1960s, as these and other high-tech disciplines like bio-technology and medical research developed, and as products and research subjects became smaller, airborne contamination became increasingly disruptive. The clean room-esque spaces that they had been using before Whitman's invention had trouble with particles and unpredictable airflow. Once the modern clean room environment was invented, they were able to rigidly control environments and flush out impurities using constant, highly filtered air flows.
Clean rooms used by major manufacturers of microelectronics, pharmaceutical products or circuitry can be as large as warehouses; In fact, they can be so large that they contain entire manufacturing facilities with multiple factory floors. Spaces with this cleanroom design are sometimes referred to as "ballrooms."
Other clean rooms can be as small as household ovens; these are used in small scale medical testing procedures as well as specialized, limited or exclusive-run manufacturing operations. They can also be used for repairs and for small experiments.
Permanent clean rooms are usually built into the structures of the buildings that house them, as are the machines that regulate their conditions. However, some permanent clean rooms can be enclosed by glass or clear plastic walls.
Soft walls, which are most commonly used in clean rooms with lower decontamination standards, are often made of flexible acrylic materials or other plastics.
All of the materials used in cleanroom construction must be carefully chosen for their non-fibrous, nonstatic electricity-generating and non-corrosive qualities. Any material that could contribute to air contamination must be avoided during the construction of clean rooms. Even stainless steel can corrode when exposed to bleach, which is sometimes used as a disinfectant.
Cleanrooms work first by filtering the air that enters them, making sure it is free of contamination from particles like dust. They do so with air filters and fans. They make sure that the air inside stays clean by constantly recirculating it either through a HEPA filter or a ULPA filter.
A cleanroom facility has a number of preventative devices, clean room equipment and materials to give a controlled environment that is free from dust and microorganisms. The equipment can be either for personal protection, or to have a germ- or dust-free air in the facility. For example, to ensure that no contamination breaches the cleanroom, workers enter and exit through airlocks. Additionally, these airlocks sometimes feature an air shower stage. Please note that, while the cost of personal gear and supplementary devices, such as highly efficient particulate air filters, air showers, and anti-static devices, is quite high, they are very important to the integrity of the cleanroom.
You can customize your cleanrooms with a number of different features that make them work better for their chosen application. Some, for example, may stay at a constant point of positive pressure, ensuring that, if the chamber springs a leak, air will exit, not enter. This feature is ideal for cleanrooms at risk for leaks and/or highly sensitive applications.
You may also customize your cleanroom in terms of minimum and maximum temperature, room division and panels, lighting fixtures, furniture and more.
Clean rooms classification is often based on function or standard adherence. Examples of clean room types include modular clean rooms, portable clean rooms (mobile clean rooms), used clean rooms, ISO clean rooms, soft wall clean rooms, rigid wall clean rooms and pharmaceutical clean rooms.
Clean rooms are also divided by class. Some of the most common classes of clean rooms are Class 100 (cannot exceed 100 particles per foot), Class 1000 (cannot exceed 1000 particles per foot) and Class 10000 (cannot exceed 10000 particles per foot).
One of the most popular cleanroom types, regardless of its exact application, is the modular clean room. For temporary means, cleanrooms are usually modular. Customers love modular construction because it is efficient, easy to assemble and easy to update and adjust. Modular cleanrooms have a structure that can be assembled relatively in a small span of time for a specific work with suitable equipment, and when the structure had served its purpose, it is disassembled. Depending on the need, they can be assembled in existing facilities, like warehouses, as a separate work unit, and even outdoors, if it becomes necessary.
Most of the portable or temporary cleanrooms are softwall cleanrooms, which means they do not have rigid walls; instead, the walls are constructed from transparent polymers. Generally, modular cleanrooms are equipped with all the equipment that are found in permanent facilities, such as anti-static devices, small and portable HEPA filters, and garment change facilities. They provide the same degree of sterility with almost half of the investment. However, they are designed to last for a short period of time.
Cleanrooms offer many advantages to their users.
First, they allow them to use and/or study highly sensitive technology and materials without compromising them. Without impurities like dust, systems have the opportunity to work with much more efficiency and accuracy. They're also less likely to break down or malfunction.
Using a clean room also means that a researcher or worker can create a mini or micro environment around their product. For example, they can control electrostatic discharge by engineering a condition of low humidity. Or, they can contain leaks by creating an environment of constant positive pressure.
In addition, because of all of the aforementioned benefits, cleanrooms earn their users an incalculable increase in revenue.
Depending on the types of materials manufactured in a cleanroom, customers may choose to accessorize their cleanrooms with array of accessories. For example, in a computer parts manufacturing unit, all the workers in cleanroom need to wear anti-static garments and bracelet or anklet to prevent static current.
Customers may also choose to use items like tables, pass through cabinets, ceiling grids, benches and fume hoods (like the laminar flow hood). Another popular accessory is the clean room fogger, which is a machine that generates fog. It is used in smoke studies, where it helps researchers visualize air flow, air flow patterns and turbulence.
Another important accessory is the cleanroom suit. This suit, which features items like hoods, face masks, boots, and coveralls, keeps the skin and hair of workers unexposed. This is important because workers must not contaminate the cleanroom environment, and yet, a human hair is usually around 100 micrometers wide, and humans shed dead skin cells at a rapid rate of 100,000 particles per minute while standing still. (Remember: clean room cleanliness is determined based on the presence of contaminants over 0.5 micrometers in size.)
Inside the cleanroom, workers must only use specialized cleanroom equipment and cleanroom supplies, including buckets and mops. Cleanroom equipment and furniture are specially designed to produce the least number of particles possible and comply to clean standards. They are also easy to clean so that those few particles they do produce are not a problem.
Before installing your clean room, always double check that the dimensions you have drafted up will fit your space exactly. This advice holds true whether you are retrofitting a used space or you are building in a brand-new one.
The easiest way to install a cleanroom is by prefabricating it. By this, we mean having the manufacturer assemble as many parts as possible at their facility before they bring it to you. This will make things go more quickly and it will reduce the amount of construction and construction dust you have to deal with at your site.
If you are not choosing to pre-fab your cleanroom, then installation will take longer. However, it will still be done with precision. Your manufacturer will send builders out to your site to assemble to cleanroom then and there, from disassembled components.
The best way to clean a cleanroom is with a combination of cleaning solutions and an efficient air filtering system, such as a HEPA filter.
When you select your cleaning solution, make sure that it is not so caustic that it will cause corrosion or any other counterproductive damage. In addition, there are a myriad of cleanroom supplies available to help you. What these are and if you use them depend upon your application and the nature of your clean room.
To put together a cleaning system that works, you must think about:
Remember, there are set standards for cleaning everything. Visit the ISO website to get the guidelines.
There are four styles for measuring and classifying clean room cleanliness: US FED STD 209E, ISO 14644-1, BS 5295 and EMP EU. However, US FED STD 209E and ISO are the two main cleanroom standard systems against which the cleanliness of a clean room is measured.
US FED STD 209E outlines the federal standard of the United States government; clean room models are assigned a class number based on the number of 0.5 micrometer-sized particles found in every cubic foot of atmosphere within the clean room. The class numbers correspond with the particle per cubic foot number. Class 1 clean rooms can be expected to contain one 0.5 micrometer-sized particle per square foot, Class 100 can be expected to contain 100 particles, and so on. If regular, unfiltered air were assigned a classification, it would be Class 1,000,000.
The International Organization for Standardization also assigns standards to clean room. ISO grading is based on the number of particles, 0.1 micrometers or larger, permitted per cubic meter of air. There is a table standardized by ISO that defines various grading; for instance, an ISO 3 cleanrooms has maximum of 103 particles per meter cubed, or 1,000 particles. They are commonly known as Class 10000 Clean Rooms and Class 100 Clean Rooms, among others.
There are nine ISO classes, each having different permitted contaminant in the air, the lowest being, ISO Class 1, and the highest, ISO Class 9.
ISO has written standards that you can access under following name:
To make sure their cleanrooms are not only in compliance but also effective, manufacturers should always follow these guidelines.
When you're in the market for a new or refurbished cleanroom, you must consider a number of factors. These include the length of your project, how sterile the environment must be, the sensitivity of the items inside the cleanroom, the dimensions of your space and the nature of your space (indoors, outdoors, new, existing, etc.).
When deciding on a contamination control program, also consider the following:
Architecture of clean rooms are designed while keeping in mind the needs of a facility. The principal aim is to achieve and maintain an airflow that has uniform velocity that follows a parallel flow lines throughout the enclosed space-a uniform laminar flow.
The thumb rule is: the more restriction to air flow, the more turbulence it causes. Turbulence has been attributed to many contamination problems. According to ISO clean room standards, all clean room should have a well-designed space where airflow is not restricted in any way.
Almost all standards specify High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters as must equipment in clean rooms. They filter very small particles with 99.97% efficiency.
(For low-grade clean rooms, like class 100 clean rooms a HVAC unit can be used as an alternative.)
Other than HEPA, there are a wide numbers of filtration mechanisms available; weigh in the price, advantages and installation cost before choosing an alternative to standard filtration system.
In most clean rooms, cleaning is daily practice to maintain a degree of cleanliness based on the requirement. It is an important element of contamination control. Owners need to make decisions about maintenance, cleanroom supplies, and cleaning schedule.
Also, you must make sure that every cleanroom product, every material, and every system you plan on installing is compatible with your application.
No matter what your application is or your specifications are, the best advice we can give you is to find the right manufacturer for you.
Who is the right manufacturer? Well, the right manufacturer is the one who looks out for you and your requirements. They'll bend over backward to make sure you're satisfied. They'll treat you with respect. Plus, they'll know their stuff. To find the right manufacturer, check out those listed near the top of this page.
- A room located between a clean room and outside area that acts as a buffer during the transportation of materials into and out of the clean room.
- A small room in which
high-speed air jets rid personnel of contaminants prior to entering the
- Represents the number of particles 0.5 microns in size or larger per cubic foot of air in the clean room. The smaller the class number, the higher the air purity.
- Structure that secures lights and filters into the ceiling.
Clean Room Construction - Custom or pre-designed clean rooms that fit industry-specific standards and come in many different forms.
Clean Room Equipment - Any movable furniture, machinery tool or storage systems made specifically for use in clean rooms.
- Walls that create multiple clean areas to meet a variety of cleanliness requirements inside a single clean room.
- Also called "bunny suits," they are worn over regular clothing and made from a special non-linting, anti-static fabric.
- Tables that come with either a perforated or solid top and meet clean room requirements.
- Harmful or unnecessary substances that decrease the purity of the environment in which they are found.
- An uncontrolled dissipation of electricity, also called a "shock," which can easily destroy semiconductor products.
- A summary of the clean room and other functional areas, which articulates the areas necessary for functioning and support.
- Text that dictates air cleanliness standards in clean rooms.
- Unit containing either HEPA or ULPA filter located in clean room ceilings or walls.
- Air filter capable of trapping
a minimum of 99.97% of particles at least 0.3 microns in size.
- The equipment responsible for providing and maintaining heating, cooling and air conditioning to a building or facility.
- Airflow within a confined area traveling with consistent speed and direction.
- Measurement unit equivalent to one-millionth of a meter.
- Microscopic, living organisms. They can be released from human skin during skin cell shedding.
- Represents the measurement or dimensions of a particle.
- An object, either solid or liquid, ranging from 0.001 to 1,000 microns.
- A body of matter consisting of distinct particles.
- Additional filter used in conjunction with the main filter to collect large particles and protect the main filter from excess contamination.
- Substance often consisting of plastic or silicone used to secure HEPA filters into ceiling grids.
located at clean room and shower entrances that utilizes adhesive film
to clean the shoes of personnel.
- Services responsible for the testing and maintenance of clean room components, including HEPA filters, HVAC systems and other equipment. Tests on HEPA filters include particle count surveys, air condition measurement, vibration measurement and airflow consistency.
- Airflow within an enclosure that does not travel in one direction.
- Air filter capable of trapping 99.9999% of particles at least 0.12 microns in size.
- Also called "process utility summary," "tool matrix" or "utility requirement spreadsheet," it is the summary of the analysis of the services of each piece of equipment needed to plan the construction of a clean room.
- Also called a "slice," it is a very thin piece of silicon that is the base material for microchips.