An iron casting is a hard product obtained from combining iron with carbon. This can be readily cast in a mold, and it contains a higher proportion of carbon compared to steel. The proportion typically ranges from 2 to 4.3...
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Investment casting is a metalworking process that uses a ceramic shell built over a wax pattern to produce parts with extraordinarily uniform and smooth surfaces. The wax pattern is produced from an aluminum die. The final products of investment casting have very small parting lines or mold half-marks that are removed as part of the after-casting processes. The final parts require a certain amount of secondary finishing to ensure their smoothness and uniformity.
The process of investment casting produces parts, components, and pieces with minimal waste and use of energy. The most distinguishing feature of investment casting is the accuracy and exceptional tolerances of the completed parts.
Investment casting, also known as lost wax casting or cire perdue in French, has been used as a metalworking method for thousands of years. It originated in China and was ignored by modern industry until the 20th century when the technology that made it easier to remove the wax from the casting was developed.
During World War Two, investment casting saw rapid growth as a means of providing exceptionally precise and flawless parts that could not be shaped using traditional methods. After the war, it became the most-used process for industrial applications that required complex and intricate designs.
Tooling for investment casting refers to the wax injection dies used to create the wax patterns that form the basis for the process. The critical factor in the tooling is the required part to be produced, a distinction that is determined by the user. Tooling is part of the design function and includes Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP), a method of design planning developed in the 1980s.
At the center of APQP is an examination of production and assessment of each stage to prevent errors and unnecessary repetitions. During APQP, every aspect of the end product is evaluated, engineered, and discussed such that the tooling, which includes the patterns and cores, is precision designed.
The die is the result of the APQP process. Wax injection dies are made from aluminum because of its thermal properties, which dissipate heat quickly and reduce cycle times. Since aluminum is malleable and pliable, it can be easily shaped and formed. The die cavities of aluminum do not suffer wear from the wax injection process; this increases their lifespan.
Aluminum Investment Casting Die
Several types of waxes are used to create the wax pattern. The type that is selected depends on several factors, such as flow properties, whether it can be reclaimed, dimensional consistencies, surface finish, and the needs of the application. Common waxes that are used include filled pattern, non-filled pattern, runner, water soluble, and sticky.
Filled pattern waxes have fillers added that add properties to the casting that ensure strength, dimensional stability, lower thermal expansion, and limited shrinkage. Fillers include bisphenol, organics, terephthalic acid, and cross-linked polystyrene.
Non-filled waxes still contain fillers, but not as much as filled waxes. They have exceptional mechanical properties and thermal performance. Non-filled waxes are used for complex geometries and defined patterns and are much easier to dewax.
Runner waxes are used for castings that require excellent mechanical strength with lower viscosity. They have a low melting point and drain quickly from the ceramic mold.
Water soluble wax is used when a part has complex and intricate internal patterns or for designs with an intricate core placed inside the pattern. Once the core is completed, the water soluble pattern is placed inside. As the pattern cools, the wax dissolves.
After injecting the wax pattern around the soluble wax, the soluble wax is leached out in a water bath with a small acid additive to speed up the process.
Sticky wax bonds pattern waxes together during pattern assembly and adheres for a long time to prevent errors during constant handling.
Wax is injected into the die or mold to create the pattern. The dimensions of the wax pattern are slightly larger than the final part to account for the contraction that takes place in the ceramic mold. The die is clamped shut, and an injection nozzle is aligned with the sprue of the die. The sprue is the path the wax follows as it enters the die cavity.
Wax pellets are melted in a holding tank connected to the injection press. The holding tank constantly agitates the mixture to keep it homogeneous. A hydraulic-powered cylinder pushes the wax through a heated hose into the sprue, filling the die cavity.
Investment casting produces high precision and finished parts in large quantities by assembling the individual patterns on a wax runner to which the patterns are affixed. Aside from its function as a method of holding the patterns, the wax runner serves as the metal feeding system or tube through which the individual parts will be fed molten metal during casting.
Wax runners are created with the same method used to produce the patterns. A metal element is located at the end of the runner around which the wax is injected. A pin connected to the metal element sticks out and will be connected to a hanger plate later in the process. A ceramic cup is also added as a funnel when the molten metal is poured into the runner and patterns.
The gates of the patterns are connected to the runner by melting its end on the surface, dipping it in a hot melt adhesive wax such as sticky wax, and pressing it to the runner. As the melted wax cools, it locks to the runner and is welded by a small torch to smooth the connection.
Once the casting pattern is assembled and set, it is dipped into a slurry for application. The slurry is made up of fine-grain silica, water, and some form of binding agent. The combination of these elements creates a ceramic coating that can be applied multiple times to achieve the desired thickness.
Following slurry dipping, the pattern assembly is coated with stucco as determined during the APQP. The stucco process starts with a thin coating and becomes progressively thicker with each application.
The shell coating is an essential part of the process. The shell's strength must be sufficient to endure all of the casting procedures. The multiple dippings and stucco coating are necessary to ensure the shell’s stability and permanence.
Various forms of heating are used to remove the wax from the hardened shell. A common modern practice is using an autoclave—a steam heating device. The temperature of the autoclave has to be sufficient to melt the wax. The steam in the autoclave removes any potentially volatile materials.
Typically, investment casting molds are fired to 1800 °F (982 °C). Once the molds are sufficiently cleaned and heated, they are ready for the injection of the metal under pressure.
Casting involves injecting molten metal into the preheated mold cavities. At this stage, the key to the quality of the casting rests in time and temperature. After the molten metal has been poured, a vibrating machine gently shakes the ceramic shell for five to seven seconds. The metal has been melted from ingots to a molten state. Once the shell is filled, it is allowed to cool at room temperature.
Once the shell has cooled and the metal has set, the shell material is removed. Various methods are used to remove the shell, including hammers, high-pressure water blasts, a vibratory table, chemicals, or a specially-designed knockout machine. During the knockout process, the shell is tightly clamped and held in position to ensure uniformity. However, the knockout process can be especially difficult for parts with intricate and complex sections.
Cut off involves removing the individual parts from the sprue or runner. Once the part has been disconnected from the runner, the remaining portions of the gates are ground away. There are various methods for removing the parts from the sprue, including chopping saws, torches, or lasers. In highly technical or high-production operations, parts may be cut off using a programmable cutting saw.
Finishing can take many forms depending on the requirements and specifications of the part’s design. A typical finishing process, grinding, further removes any deformities or remainders of the gate. Although the part's surface is naturally very smooth, further polishing may be necessary to enhance and perfect it.
Finishing may be completed using sandblasting, shot blasting, or other machining methods.
The purpose of heat treatment is to enhance the mechanical characteristics and properties of the component. The casting process reduces the strength, durability, and toughness of a metal, but heat treatments eliminate internal stress. The heat treatments used for investment casting include vacuum solution annealing, hardening, tempering, and precipitation hardening.
The purpose of vacuum solution annealing is to remove precipitative material and change the workpiece to a single-phase structure. After the annealing, the workpiece is soft and ductile, ready to be hardened. At this stage, the workpiece is workable, machinable, weldable, and has dimensional stability.
Hardening includes heating the metal until it reaches its austenitic crystal phase. After this, it is quickly cooled. The process increases the strength and wearability of the workpiece.
Tempering heats the workpiece to a temperature just below its critical range, holds it there, then cools it. The process of tempering reduces brittleness and requires precise control, so it does not affect hardness.
Precipitation hardening, or age hardening, makes the workpiece harder. It is performed in a vacuum at temperatures that range between 900 °F (482 °C) and 1150 ° F (621 °C). The process includes heating the workpiece, treating it with a solution, cooling it, and heating it again before rapidly cooling it.
The range of surface treatments for investment cast products includes rust protection and corrosion resistance-enhancing polishing and chemical treatments. The surface of an investment cast part can vary according to the grade of the alloy and product. The types of treatments include:
Though investment casting, or lost wax casting, has been used for thousands of years, there have been innovations that have added to the effectiveness of the process. The variations are designed to enhance the method for developing the pattern and addressing the use of wax. An umbrella term for lost wax casting is evaporative pattern casting since the material used to create the pattern is removed or evaporated.
Though these alternate methods create patterns in different ways, they are similar to investment casting and can be considered offshoots or variations. The main differences in the variations are the materials used to create the pattern or the formation of the pattern.
Lost foam casting has gained popularity as a replacement for investment casting due to its ability to fit into mass production and automated processes. The method of lost foam casting is a recent addition to evaporation casting. It was developed by H. F. Shroyer in 1958 as a process that uses polystyrene foam placed in casting sand.
Like in investment casting, an aluminum die is used to create the pattern. Polystyrene beads are placed in the mold or die and steam heated; this causes the beads to melt and take the shape of the mold. As the beads are heated, they expand and assume the contours and dimensions of the die.
The individual patterns are attached to a sprue or runner and sprayed with a refractory coating of ceramic material. The coated mold is placed in a vented container, which is packed with sand to hold it in position. As molten metal is poured into the container, the polystyrene evaporates, making room for the molten metal.
In some cases, patterns do not have to be shaped in a die but can be hand carved. Using a machine or shape tool, polystyrene can be cut, formed, and configured to the desired dimensions of the workpiece. This type of pattern-making is used for one-off parts or prototypes.
Lost foam casting is a manufacturing process used to create ornate, decorative, and complex metal configurations, shapes, and designs. It can be used by engineers to create three-dimensional renderings of their conceptualizations.
Direct investment casting differs from traditional investment casting, which is referred to as indirect investment casting, by how the pattern is created. With indirect casting, the pattern is formed in a die to create a wax representation. Several wax duplicates are attached to a sprue or runner, dipped in a ceramic solution, dipped in stucco, and dewaxed for the pattern to be filled with molten metal to form several versions of the component.
Direct casting varies in the way the pattern is formed and preformed using a variety of techniques. The first of these techniques is carving the pattern by hand or machine to create a one-up version that is processed using the lost wax method. This process is used for producing a prototype, assessing dimensions, or short runs of finished parts.
The next technique is a technological method that has come from the introduction of computer-assisted drafting (CAD). With the use of CAD, a three-dimensional representation of the workpiece is engineered and designed. Much like with a CNC machine, the design is programmed into a stereolithography (STL) optical fabrication machine that creates a three-dimensional representation of the pattern using the input data.
In essence, STL is a method for fabricating a solid, formed shape using a photosensitive liquid polymer and directed laser beam. Fabrication is accomplished in layers, with one layer added onto the previous layer to gradually and slowly build and shape the three-dimensional geometric design. A representation of STL can be seen in the diagram below.
Water glass investment casting is a process that is commonly used in China. In water glass investment casting, water glass is used as the binding agent for the shell instead of ethyl silicate. The process originated in Russia in the 1950s and has the advantages of material costs and production cycle.
The surface finishes from water glass investment casting are comparable to casting that uses silica sol casting technology since it avoids defects that are found in traditional shell technology. The process, operation, and parameters of water glass investment casting are less complicated and can be completed by untrained, general workers; this improves production and efficiency.
Investment casting is a very versatile metalworking process used to shape pipe fittings, automotive parts, marine hardware, and food machinery. There are a wide variety of metals that can be used for investment casting that have different properties to benefit a range of applications.
All ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be shaped and configured using investment casting. Of the varieties of ferrous metals, ductile iron, carbon and alloy steels, and selected grades of stainless steel are the most used. Non-ferrous metals, such as copper alloys, magnesium, and aluminum, can also be used, with aluminum being the most popular.
Aluminum alloys for investment casting have a density of 2.7 g/cm3 or slightly higher. The types of parts made of aluminum from investment casting include aircraft and engine parts. Aluminum alloys A-356, A-357, C-355, and F-357, which contain silicon, magnesium, iron, and zinc, are the most used. Components made from aluminum have corrosion resistance and weldability, and some have exceptional strength.
Stainless steel is a ferrous metal that contains chromium for added protection against stains and corrosion. There are several grades of stainless steel, each with beneficial properties. The variations in stainless steel are due to the chemical composition of its alloys. Stainless steel is an ideal metal for parts that are exposed to environments with high temperatures or liquids.
The main grades of stainless steel used for investment casting are the 300 and 400 series. Austenitic 300 series stainless steel has excellent corrosion resistance but does not gain strength through heat treatment. Martensitic 400 series stainless steel has exceptional strength and machinability and can be hardened through quenching and tempering, which also increases its strength.
Carbon steel is one of the better choices for investment casting products since it can operate in high-pressure conditions, is wear-resistant, and has exceptional strength, toughness, and hardenability. The properties of carbon steel are determined by the amount of carbon it contains, which increases its hardness and strength during heat treatment.
Mid and low-carbon steels are used the most for investment casting. Mid-carbon steel has ductility, strength, and wear resistance and can be hardened and tempered by heat treatment. Low-carbon steel can easily be shaped but is not strengthened by heat treatment.
Nickel alloys have high strength and are resistant to heat, corrosion, and wear. They can be welded and fabricated and resist cracking or stress corrosion. The main use of nickel alloy investment castings is under conditions with high temperatures and corrosive elements.
The popularity of nickel alloy investment castings is due to their tight tolerances and exceptionally smooth finishes, as well as their ability to be processed in complex and intricate shapes. Of the various investment casting metals, nickel alloys are a cost-effective solution.
Copper alloys exhibit corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, and toughness. They are used in investment casting due to their easy castability. Copper alloys are machinable, with excellent mechanical properties and friction and wear resistance.
The types of copper alloys used for investment casting include series C-84500, C-85800, C-86000, C-87000, C-90000, and C-95000. The wide range of alloys provides a sufficient selection to choose the correct alloy for any application.
Cobalt alloys have high strength and heat and wear resistance. They have a natural resistance to oxidation with an exceptionally high melting point that makes them ideal for corrosive and chemically charged environments. Cobalt alloys have creep resistance and resistance to thermal fatigue for high-temperature applications.
The various cobalt alloys contain combinations of chromium, nickel, tungsten, and molybdenum; this changes its properties and type of resistance. The cobalt alloys used for investment casting include numbers 6, 21, 25, 31, and 93.
For several years, it was difficult to cast magnesium using investment casting because molten magnesium reacts with the silica mold shell. Recently, an inhibitor has been introduced, allowing magnesium to be used in investment casting.
Magnesium is lightweight and has an excellent strength-to-weight ratio. It is versatile and comes in a wide array of alloys, including AZ91D and AM60B, with AZ81, AM50A AM20, AE42, and AS41B used for their creep resistance and high-temperature applications.
Investment casting and centrifugal casting produce exceptionally high-quality parts using different dies and processes. Investment casting uses ceramic dies or molds that are destroyed after the casting process, while centrifugal casting uses permanent and reusable dies.
Aside from the differences in dies, there is a radical difference in the process used to achieve well-formed, high-quality parts. Investment casting is a traditional process in which molten metal is poured into a ceramic mold designed for single-run production.
On the other hand, centrifugal casting is a more aggressive approach that includes the rapid rotation of the mold as the molten metal is poured. As the mold spins, the force of its motion evenly distributes the molten metal against the interior of the mold or die.
Unlike investment casting, centrifugal casting can only produce simple geometries with exceptional accuracy and high tolerances. Horizontal centrifugal casting is ideal for producing long parts such as pipes, while vertical centrifugal casting produces cylinders.
Centrifugal casting begins with pouring molten metal into a preheated spinning die, which can be oriented horizontally or vertically. The die's axial position depends on the configuration of the part being manufactured. The centrifugal force produced by the spinning die creates pressure at 100 times the force of gravity to distribute the molten metal evenly over the interior surface of the die.
As the die spins, the denser portions of the molten metal adhere to the walls of the die or its outside diameter (OD). In contrast, the less dense material and impurities float along the interior diameter (ID). The collection of the impurities on the ID makes it possible to remove them by machining during the finishing process.
An important part of the centrifugal casting process is the centrifugal casting equipment. Due to the nature of the process, these parts must be able to withstand tremendous heat and constant use. Although there are differences in centrifugal casting equipment, they all have the same basic parts, which include a ladle, pouring basin, core, rollers, motor, and mold.
The three types of centrifugal casting are horizontal, vertical, and vacuum, which are chosen in accordance with the parameters of the part to be produced. With vertical centrifugal casting, the die rotates around the vertical axis of the die. Horizontal centrifugal casting has the die rotate around its horizontal axis. Vacuum centrifugal casting pulls the molten metal into the die and limits the effects of oxidation.
With vertical centrifugal casting, the equipment for the process is vertically oriented. As the die is spun around its vertical axis, the molten metal is poured into the pouring basin at the top of the casting apparatus. Vertical centrifugal casting is used to produce cylinders with a diameter larger than the cast's height. It produces components for the military, aerospace, and petrochemical industries.
In horizontal centrifugal casting, the die rotates around its horizontal axis. It is suited for casting long tubular parts that are longer than their diameter. The rotational speed for horizontal centrifugal casting is exceptionally high to avoid the effects of gravity on the molten metal. The end of the mold has a closed and sealed cover with a pouring basin at the opposite end.
Vacuum centrifugal casting was created in response to the difficulties of casting metals that are reactive to oxygen. The metal for the process is melted using a high-pressure vacuum pump. A vacuum is used to suck the metal into the centrifugal machine. The use of vacuum casting in unison with centrifugal casting produces parts with directional solidification without porosity or a need for finishing.
The vacuum centrifugal casting process limits the amount of oxidation, allowing for a greater flow rate and temperature control. Parts produced in the process are uniform and have tight tolerances.
A key benefit of using centrifugal casting is the production of components without voids or shrinkage from the molten metal fed into the mold. In the case of centrifugal casting, solidification occurs in one direction, with the exterior shape of the mold initiating solidification. Exothermal materials added to the ID and a heat sink from the OD create a temperature gradient and directional solidification from the OD to the ID.
Liquid metal from the ID is fed into the casting, removing voids and defects. Although the casting is solid, it still requires machining to remove surface roughness and concentricity.
The main benefit of centrifugal casting is its increased yield since the process does not require gates or risers, which reduces the finishing time. The control of directional solidification makes it possible to produce uniform parts and components.
Centrifugal casting may be the right choice for these reasons:
Investment casting is an extremely popular method for producing many parts and components. The process of investment casting allows for the creation of intricate and complex components from a huge selection of metals and alloys.
The simplicity of investment casting allows for high production runs with exceptionally accurate dimensional consistency. The original reason investment casting was implemented in the 20th century was the development of the jet engine in the 1940s, which could not allow for inconsistencies or imperfections in its components. It is that aspect of investment casting that has made it an essential part of contemporary manufacturing.
Aerospace was the first industry to rely on investment casting as a method for producing parts with exceptional tolerances and finishes. A wide assortment of metals can be used to make flight components, and investment casting provides the necessary selection of metals. Using any metal, investment casting produces precision parts with minimal materials and limited energy waste.
Aerospace components have to withstand extreme weather, fluctuating pressure, and various forms of operational wear; this requires superior durability. Investment cast products have the necessary consistency, precision, and tensile strength to meet and exceed the requirements. Their main benefit in aerospace is their precision, which allows interlinked parts to match up quickly and easily.
Firearm manufacturers rely on investment casting due to the fact that it allows them the freedom to develop and implement unique designs. The manufacture of firearms demands precision and accuracy, and investment casting parts provide the net shapes that can be fabricated from a selection of alloys.
Investment casting minimizes the amount of metal that has to be removed during the finishing process. Using CNC machining, producers are able to make uniform parts with little variation at a low cost.
The medical and dental fields require instruments and components with the greatest amount of precision to meet tight tolerances and dimensional requirements. Surgical tools, implants, machines, stretchers, and wheelchairs are all produced using investment casting.
The lifesaving potential of investment cast parts makes their proper production critical. Every piece of equipment must be of the highest quality.
The main requirement for locks is that they are durable and resilient. Investment casting allows for the production of specialized locks as well as ordinary locks for domestic use. The need for locks to mesh precisely requires their casting to be accurate down to the most minute detail.
A wide assortment of equipment is used to produce all the food we eat. This equipment relies on investment casting to manufacture its components and parts. Components for the food industry are made from stainless steel or specialty alloys due to the need for precision and durability. Meat slicers, poultry processing equipment, ice machine parts, grills, and warming machines have parts and pieces made from investment casting.
Hydraulic and pneumatic equipment use fluid power, meaning that they transmit power through the use of gasses or fluids. The types of components that are required in fluid power include ball valves, steam traps, impellers, needle valves, compressors, and pumps. Like the food and dairy industry, the hydraulics industry uses stainless steel as well as aluminum and some specialty metals.
There are many choices for the production of metal parts. Each choice has its benefits regarding production, quality, and accuracy. Of the processes available, investment casting technology has become the process of choice for producing precision parts with excellent finishes. With low cost, design freedom, and unlimited quantities, investment casting is ideal for modern part manufacturing.
The many advantages of investment casting have made it the number one metal fabricating process for industrial and commercial products.
Design freedom is especially important for complex and intricate parts that may have multiple internal and external shapes. Investment casting is not limited by size, thickness, or configuration. It has the ability to adapt and shift to meet any challenge.
Of the many advantages of investment casting, tighter tolerances are the most important. When a part is engineered, it has to be manufactured to meet the exact specifications of the design so it will easily integrate with other parts. With investment casting, tolerances vary according to part design, with symmetrical shapes with uniform walls having tighter tolerances than non-uniform and non-symmetrical shapes.
Investment casting produces superior finishes that require little after-production finishing. The types of finishes the process produces are a feature for which it is famous. The quality of surface finishes far exceeds those of other casting processes. No other production method can match the combination of tight tolerances and exceptional finishes found in investment casting.
Any production manager will say that defects are at the heart of production delays and labor costs. Defects produced in a production process create waste, require extra machining, and slow production runs. The attraction of investment casting is the low percentage of defects that require adjustments and changes to processes.
Another major expense included in every manufacturing process is waste, the material left over after the completion of production. Investment casting requires very little after-production finishing, drastically limiting the amount of waste produced. The lack of waste has multiple benefits, including lower production costs, labor costs, and faster turnarounds.
The lack of waste includes the removal of the need for specialized equipment such as deburring machines, heavy-duty grinders, and various cutting tools. An additional factor is lower energy costs, increased efficiency, and exceptionally economical company performance.
There is no limitation on the number of parts that can be produced using investment casting. Investment casting can produce parts rapidly and flawlessly, from very small runs to those that go into the thousands. Parts weighing 0.1 to hundreds of pounds can be produced and finished using investment casting.
Every form of metal and alloy can be shaped and processed using investment casting. This is another feature that has made investment casting the number one method for producing equipment components. Unlike other casting methods, investment casting can work with any form of molten metal to create a reliable and useful part.
One of the key principles motivating modern business is sustainability. Patterns, wax, and metal from the runners can be reused, saving costs and avoiding waste. This particular factor has added to the popularity of investment casting.
It is difficult to find a casting process that can produce components with minute, miniature details. This particular attribute of investment casting is the reason it was chosen to support the aerospace industry and the development of the first jet-powered aircraft. As society moves deeper into the age of technology, flawless parts, and accurate dimensional tolerances will become increasingly important.
From the initial pattern to the ceramic shell to the cut-off of parts, every step of the investment casting process is designed to produce intricate and precise details with accuracy.
Several factors influence the quality and accuracy of investment cast parts. The main considerations are the structure of the part, casting material, molding, shell making, and injection. Any error in the process can have an effect on the shrinkage rate, which would lead to deviations in the dimensions.
The first influential step in the process is the creation of the wax pattern; it has to be produced with a great amount of precision and accuracy.
The casting structure is influenced by the thickness of the part’s walls. If they are too thick, they can increase the rate of shrinkage. If the wall thickness is too low, the opposite effect is produced. A free systolic rate that is too large can block the shrinkage and make it smaller.
As with every form of casting, the material has an important influence on the results of the casting. Low carbon content decreases the rate of shrinkage.
The injection pressure and temperature are two obvious factors that will influence the casting process results.
The type of material chosen to make the shell can influence the shrinkage rate. Certain materials, such as zircon sand, have a small expansion coefficient and are ideal for the process.
Improper heating of the shell can have a negative effect and result in decreased shell expansion.
The injection temperature is the temperature at which the molten metal enters the gates. If the temperature is too high, it will produce defects such as coarse grains on the internal structure. A low temperature will influence the fluidity of the molten metal. The temperature for the casting process is influenced by the alloy being used.
The main problem with improper injection temperature is shrinkage, which can be reduced if the injection temperature is kept constant. A higher temperature will not require more energy but will still produce more precise and accurate parts.
An iron casting is a hard product obtained from combining iron with carbon. This can be readily cast in a mold, and it contains a higher proportion of carbon compared to steel. The proportion typically ranges from 2 to 4.3...
Lost wax casting is a casting process that uses a wax pattern to create a ceramic mold for creating a part or product design. It has been known over the years as lost wax or precision casting due to its accuracy in recreating parts with precise tolerances...
The casting process is an ancient art that goes back several thousand years to the beginning of written history. The archeological record has finds that document the use of the casting process over 6000 years ago around 3000 BC or BCE...
Aluminum casting is a method for producing high tolerance and high quality parts by inserting molten aluminum into a precisely designed and precision engineered die, mold, or form. It is an efficient process for the production of complex, intricate, detailed parts that exactly match the specifications of the original design...
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Die casting is a high pressure metal casting process that forces molten metal into a mold. It produces dimensionally accurate precision metal parts that have a flawless smooth finish...
Forging is a metal working process that manipulates, shapes, deforms, and compresses metal to achieve a desired form, configuration, or appearance outlined by a metal processing design or diagram...
Rolled ring forging is a metal working process that involves punching a hole in a thick, solid, round metal piece to create a donut shape and then squeezing and pressuring the donut shape into a thin ring...
Sand casting is a manufacturing process in which liquid metal is poured into a sand mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape and then allowed to solidify. Casting is a manufacturing process in which...