A cooling tower is an enclosed structure that removes heat from water (or other fluids) used in industrial plants and processes. There are different designs, types, shapes, and sizes of cooling towers. The basic working process is the same, however, and is based on evaporative cooling. Heat from water is transferred to the air through the process of evaporation, which lowers the temperature of the water. (A cooling tower is sometimes called an evaporative condenser or a fluid cooler.)
Evaporative cooling depends on wet bulb temperature, which is the lowest temperature to which the water can be cooled in the plant, process, or system. The rate of heat transfer needed for the evaporation of water into the air tells how well the cooling tower is performing. The wet bulb temperature of the air entering the tower is a primary measure of the effectiveness of a cooling tower. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the Cooling Technology Institute (CTI), an industry association that provides technical and educational services for its members, recommend that towers be sized and tested based on entering wet-bulb temperatures. (Wet-bulb temperatures are taken with a psychrometer.)
Cooling Tower – Whaley Products, Inc.
Cooling Towers – Whaley Products, Inc.
Cooling Tower – Whaley Products, Inc.
Cooling Towers – Whaley Products, Inc.
Large Cooling Towers – Cooling Tower Systems, Inc.
Elevated Fiberglass Cooling Towers – Cooling Tower Systems, Inc.
A Brief History
The ancients in Greece, Rome, and the Middle East used porous water pots and ponds to exploit the concepts of evaporation to gain relief from the heat. It wasn’t until the 1800s and the advent of the industrial age, however, that mechanical apparatus to cool the air by evaporation of water were invented. A British patent from 1819 was one of the first for an evaporative cooler to cool liquids. Early cooling towers coincided with the invention of condensers built for steam engines that needed cool water to operate. One US patent from 1899 describes a water cooling tower to cool "large quantities of condensing-water . . . [t]he same water used continuously . . . with peculiar efficiency and economy."
By the early 20th century there were numerous US patents for inventions variously called "wet boxes, desert coolers, drip coolers, and then swamp coolers." One of the earliest of these direct coolers was a wooden frame wrapped with wet burlap and using fans to force air into the area being cooled. A 1906 patent describes a water cooling-tower apparatus with nozzles, sprayers, and troughs to "repeatedly distribute the water with great uniformity over the whole horizontal sectional area of the tower." The technology evolved into modern designs as circulating pumps and integrated motor and fan units were incorporated and with the invention of new materials and plastics.
Applications: More Common Than Imagined
Industrial cooling towers. Heat dissipation is a common process in any industrial plant. Towers to cool industrial recycled process water are used in almost all heavy industries, including in steel mills, food and beverage manufacturing, oil and gas refining, pulp and paper mills, chemical processing, and cement plants. They also provide cooled water for power plants that generate excess heat during electricity production, thus providing a consistent supply of liquid for their heat exchange systems. At power plants, chimney-designed cooling towers release excess heat as a water vapor plume, which is condensed steam being released to the atmosphere.
As part of large commercial, medical, and industrial HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems, cooling towers are standard in new construction of office buildings, airports, convention centers, hospitals, high-rises, hotels, and manufacturing facilities. HVAC cooling towers affect comfort and, as a consequence, the health and productivity of the people inside buildings. Because they are large structures (larger than typical HVAC units) and require a lot of space, they are located outside on the roof or in out-of-the-way places on the building’s grounds.
Basic Working Principles
In an evaporative cooling tower, warm water is pumped or sprayed through the top of the tower where it meets cooling air inside the tower (which is fresh air that is drawn in from the atmosphere). The air forces the water to evaporate and the evaporation removes the heat from the water. When the water reaches a lower temperature, the cooled water exits at the base and is returned or recycled back to the machinery or the process. The water again gathers heat from the industrial or machine process and is recirculated to the top of the cooling tower.
Although the idea is to recirculate water so it can be used again, there is water loss in the process due to evaporation, blowdown (removal of water with dissolved solid content or sediment), drift, and even leaks in the system. To compensate for that loss and improve the water-use efficiency, “make-up water” is added during operation.
Each of the cooling tower’s components or parts has to be maintained:
- Fill material. This thermal component is the main area available for transferring heat from hot water to cool air. Fill is usually honeycombed or corrugated in pattern, which maximizes the water surface area, and usually made of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) or PP (polypropylene) material or even stainless steel.
- Water distribution deck (or wet deck). This component is usually a set of nozzles that uniformly sprays water to wet the fill material as it is being cooled, in order to maximize heat transfer.
- Air inlet and air outlet. These are the points were cool air enters and warm air exits the tower, respectively. The air inlet may be one side of the tower (in a cross-flow design) or it may be located near the bottom (counter-flow design).
- Intake louvers. They equalize air flow into the fill and keep water inside the tower.
- Drift eliminators. They are placed next to the fill to capture water droplets in the air stream that would otherwise be lost to the environment as vapor.
- Cool water basin. Located at the bottom of the tower, beneath the fill, it collects the cooled water from the tower and may serve as the foundation for the main structure.
- Mechanical components and instrumentation. Fans, pumps, and motor drive mechanisms (e.g., gearboxes, driveshaft) move air and deliver desired airflow. Sensors, sensor connectors, and cables may be mounted to detect vibration and high-frequency gear and bearing faults. Instrumentation is also needed for measuring hot and cold water temperatures and measuring the flow of make-up water and blowdown rate. All of these components impact energy efficiency and the amount of maintenance required.
- Casing or shell. This is the enclosure, which can be made of chemically treated wood, aluminum, hot dip galvanized steel, ceramic, or reinforced plastics (e.g., glass fiber material to reinforce plastic or other resins). The casing contains the water as it recirculates through the cool tower and provides structural support for the tower fan system and other internal components. The structure may need to be resistant to vibration, high wind load, and corrosion.
Design and Customization Considerations
Cooling towers are categorized according to the way in which air flows in the tower, by both the direction of airflow (counter-flow or cross-flow) and the type of draft (mechanical or natural). Equipment is also manufactured in round or bottle shape, hyperboloid (an identifying feature of power plants), and rectangular shape. Each design has relative advantages and disadvantages, with the final choice on design determined by many factors, including the user's requirements and application, economics, and even the location and weather conditions where the tower is built. (The efficiency of evaporative cooling is affected by outside temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity.)
Natural draft towers use a chimney design and rely on the difference in pressure and temperature between the air outside (cool) and the air inside the tower. The tall chimney in which the air rises provides the updraft, without need for a tower fan. Natural draft towers are best situated in open areas because performance depends on wind direction and velocity; this design is rarely used in HVAC cooling towers. Hyperboloid designed towers at nuclear power and large coal-fired plants are natural draft designs that handle large water capacity requirements.
Mechanical draft towers use electric-powered fans to force air through the structure and may use cross-flow (air flows perpendicular to water flow) or counter-flow (air flows opposite to the water flow) designs. Counter-flow towers may be built with a smaller footprint because they are more compact than cross-flow towers in which the air flows horizontally. Mechanical draft towers can be costlier to operate because of the mechanical components needed to circulate air in the tower but are easier to locate on or near buildings, so they are used in HVAC and refrigeration applications.
A round or bottle shape tower is a popular design in industrial processes because it allows for maximum cooling space and minimal area. These towers are available in many capacities and can be factory-built or erected on site. Rectangular shape cooling towers are common in air-conditioning plants.
There are user-defined design considerations as well, such as safety, noise abatement, erosion resistance, and chemical resistance. As examples:
- Towers made of wood are susceptible to fire and rot because of the constant wet cooling environment; chemically treated wood is falling out of favor because it poses certain environmental and health risks.
- Towers made of fiber-reinforced polyester and hot dip galvanized steel are rigid in structure and can resist rot and rust and withstand many years of operation. Pre-fabricated steel is heavy to transport and expensive to construct, requiring highly skilled workers; plastic as material of construction for a cooling tower is high strength but lightweight and easier to customize and transport than steel.
- Cooling towers can be noisy. In communities or buildings (e.g., schools, hospitals) where noise may be a special concern, a cooling tower may need to be acoustically engineered.
Safety and Maintenance Considerations
Warm, moist environments are a breeding ground for microorganisms and biofilms that can cause operational and mechanical problems with cooling equipment, as well as human health issues. Cooling towers and evaporative condensers that use fans to move air through a recirculated water system and that introduce large amounts of water vapor into the environment require frequent maintenance and cleaning, the addition of biocides, and inspection for growth of harmful Legionella bacteria (associated with pneumonia-like Legionnaires disease), in accordance with regulations in certain cities and states. Water quality assurance testing of the make-up water source (e.g., groundwater, surface water) is another consideration for the safe operation of a cooling tower.
Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has rules to reduce emissions of air toxics with health effects from industrial process cooling towers.
There are safety code standards (NFPA 214) applying to fire protection for field-erected and factory-assembled cooling towers, both for the combustibility of the construction materials and the fill.
Selection of Cooling Tower Manufacturers
Many companies make or sell cooling tower equipment. Most are small companies and there may be fewer than a dozen large, global manufacturers. Companies compete on their products’ key properties, which for a cooling tower are psychrometric properties, energy efficiencies, and cost, including lifetime/maintenance costs.
There is a difference between a good manufacturer and the right manufacturer. The right manufacturer suits the end-customer’s need. To select a manufacturer, customers should know whether the manufacturer provides its cooling towers as fully engineered equipment that the company sells or if it works with partner OEMs (original equipment manufacturers). Evaluate whether the company can supply replacement or spare-part products direct to customers and their facilities and if it offers good maintenance and quality assurance service (product and/or parts warranties) and a selection of reliable mechanical components. An easy way to find a Cooling Tower Manufacturer is to visit the company directory at the top of this page.
When cooling tower equipment is properly designed and maintained, it should be able to last for 20 years and provide water to a plant, process, or system at a specified water temperature and flow rate and keep the entire cooling process performing optimally and energy efficiently. You can connect directly with designers of cooling towers who are able to ensure you get a system that is ideal for you here on IQS Directory.
Cooling Tower Types
- Air conditioner cooling tower provide air conditioning and are fiberglass structures that cool larger buildings like hospitals, schools and some offices.
quite an attractive appearance, but are usually more expensive than
other cooling towers.
- Chillers cooling towers are supplementary means of eliminating waste heat that is a byproduct of many processes which require the use of air and liquid chiller systems.
- Closed loop cooling towers are cooling towers in which the air
and cooled water or other fluid do not have direct contact.
- Cooling tower design determines
cost, performance, and efficiency.
companies that make units that cool fluids.
- Cooling tower systems, sometimes referred to as heat rejection devices, provide cooling of water and other fluids through the removal of heat from the fluid.
- contain opposing air and water flows.
The airflow moves up and the water flow moves downward.
- contain perpendicular air and water flows.
The airflow is horizontal, and the water flows vertically downward.
- are used in drinking water and wastewater
treatment facilities to assist in the elimination of bacteria,
chemicals and other impurities in the water.
- Evaporative cooling towers are heat extraction devices that use the evaporation of a small amount of working fluid, typically water, to transfer heat into a moving air stream in order to cool the rest of the water stream close to the wet-bulb air temperature, a designed measurement of temperature reflecting the desired level of water vapor content of the cooling tower.
- Fiberglass cooling towers have great weather resistance, which makes
them useful in harsher environmental conditions. These cooling
towers also provide good corrosion resistance, which remains advantageous
in applications such as water treatments, in which the tower
will be exposed
- HVAC cooling towers combine a water-cooled chiller, or condenser, with a cooling tower.
- Hyperbolic cooling towers refers to a specific design and construction style for cooling towers that utilizes hyperbolic structural planning which inherently creates natural draft and employs evaporation to cool water and other fluids.
- Industrial cooling towers are heat rejection systems that are used for the cooling of water and other working fluids by means of removing process waste heat from the fluid and into the atmosphere.
- consist of forced draft towers, which
contain side fans that force the air through the system, and
induced draft cooling towers, which contain overhead fans that
air through the system. Mechanical draft cooling towers are often
cooling tower systems.
- Natural draft cooling towers do not utilize fans but rely on exhaust
air buoyancy and natural winds to move the air through the
system. Natural draft cooling towers are used in applications involving
of water, such as power generation plants.
- are cooling towers in which water is
internally distributed within the system with direct contact
with the entering
- Water cooling towers are
basic cooling systems used to cool water through contact with airflow.
water cooling towers include
air conditioning and water/wastewater.
Cooling Tower Terms
– The DBT as measured by
– Fans in which
the direction of the airflow does not change. Axial fan types include
propeller, tubaxial and vaneaxial.
removed from a cooling tower to prevent excessive buildup of impurities
within the system. Impurities increase in concentration as water evaporates
during the cooling process.
– Water removed from a cooling tower through wind or splashing.
Blow out is reduced or eliminated through the use of screens and other
– The amount of heat gain or loss that
is needed in order to change the temperature of one pound of water by
one degree Fahrenheit.
– Water droplets removed
from a cooling tower along with the exhaust air. Drift must be controlled
because, unlike the water vapor
removed from the tower, drift often contains chemicals, debris and other
impurities that may negatively affect the environment.
– A mechanism in a cooling tower that prevents
drift from leaving the tower by catching the drift as it flows through
the eliminator, while allowing the passage of exhausted air through the
eliminator and into the atmosphere.
– The temperature of the air entering
the cooling tower, measured in degrees Fahrenheit.
– Water in the air being brought into the cooling plumes
as the liquid wastes are discharged.
– The air removed from the cooling tower during the
cooling process. Exhaust air also contains water vapor that has evaporated
during the cooling process.
– A labyrinth-like packing
that provides a vastly expanded air-water interface, which allows heating
of the air and evaporation to occur. Film fill consists of multiple, typically
vertical, wetted surfaces upon which a thin covering of water spreads,
while splash fill consists of many levels of horizontal splash elements
that create a cascade of tiny droplets, which have a large combined surface
– The foggy condensation of water vapor outside of a cooling
tower resulting from the contact of saturated exhaust air emerging from
the tower with cooler air outside of the tower.
– The process in which the fan of the cooling tower
draws air from the bottom of the unit and passes it out through the top
of the cooling tower.
– Sound energy generated by the impact of falling water,
movement of air by fans, the movement of fan blades within the structure
and the drive belts, gearboxes and motors that is emitted by a cooling
tower and recorded at a certain distance and direction.
– A mechanism through which water flows into a cooling tower
in either spray or stream form.
– Exhaust air and water vapor emerging from a cooling tower.
A plume may create fogging when introduced to air of a lower temperature.
– Mechanism used in a cooling tower system to measure
the wet bulb temperature of the system.
– The entrance into a cooling tower of previously
discharged air that reenters the system along with fresh air.
– Cooling tower capacity representing the amount
of liquid, measured in gallons per minute, that a cooling tower can process.
– The temperature within a cooling tower
at which the air is saturated with water vapor, preventing the further
occurrence of water evaporation.