12 Volt Solenoid Valve
12 volt solenoid valves are one of the most common flow control valves in commercial, industrial, and home tools and appliances.
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Advantages of 12 Volt Solenoid Valves
Powered by natural pressure and electromagnetic force, 12v solenoid valves have fewer moving parts. This is an advantage considering moving parts require maintenance. 12 volt solenoid valves control the flow of gases or liquids through tubes, as regular valves do, but unlike other valves, can be easily operated by remote devices that activate the solenoid coil. The ability to be controlled remotely makes 12 volt solenoid valves extremely useful for operating potentially dangerous machinery or inaccessible lines.
Purpose of 12 Volt Solenoid Valves
12 volt hydraulic valves regulate flow of fluid or water, while 12 volt air or pneumatic valves regulate flow of gas or air. Ideal for low volume vacuum or air pressure applications, 12 volt solenoid valves can be made from either plastics or metallic elements and alloys. The 12v refers to the amount of voltages supplied by the direct current (DC) power source. There are also 3v, 6v and 24 volt solenoid valves; however, 12 volt solenoid valves are the standard.
Design of 12 Volt Solenoid Valves
12v solenoid valves are operated electromechanically by a solenoid, which is a magnetized coil activated by electrical charges, which controls the flow of gases or liquids precisely through targeted electrical charges, sensor cue or by hysteresis (device memory). In addition, 12 volt solenoid valves must be either a normally closed (NC) valve or a normally open (NO) valve.
- Normally Closed (NC) Valves
- A plunging pin or rod within the valve is held blocking the passage of air or fluid by a solenoid coil; the air or fluid pressure coming into the valve helps keep the valve shut as long as the pin blocks the passage. In order for gas or fluid to flow through the valve, an electromagnetic charge is run through the solenoid coil, which becomes active and lifts the plunger out of the passage and allows flow through the entire valve.
- Normally Open (NO) Valves
- Remain open until the solenoid is activated and pushes down the plunger, blocking flow and creating pressure to keep the valve closed.
Types of 12 Volt Solenoid Valves
12 volt solenoid valve manufacturers make two general types of valves: direct-acting and pilot-operated.
- Have a plunger that is in direct contact with the in-flow opening in the valve body, or orifice. This plunger is used to open and close the orifice, which permits or hinders flow.
- Actually a combination of a pneumatic or hydraulic valve and a smaller solenoid valve, works with a diaphragm rather than a plunger, using differential pressure to control the flow of gases or fluids.
Application of 12 Volt Solenoid Valves
Ice cube makers, refrigerators and dishwashers are a few home appliances that operate with 12 volt solenoid valves, which are most often pneumatic but can also be hydraulic. A wide range of industries use 12v solenoid valves to power industrial tools and electric motors, for heating and cooling, electronic, medical, dental equipment, oil tooling, aerospace, fuel systems and automotive.