Heat exchangers are heat transferring devices used to move heat from one gaseous or liquid substance to another for the purpose of either heating or cooling a substance for another process. Constructed with thermally conductive plates or tubes, heat exchangers are used to transfer heat from water to water, air to air, water to air or steam to other liquids - such as lubrication oil.
Many industrial processes require heat exchangers to perform a crucial role in the design, operation and maintenance of heating systems, air-conditioning systems, vehicle operation, power generation, refrigeration, chemical processing, offshore oil rigging and engineering systems. They can also be used in the process of waste heat recovery in industrial facilities. There are a number of varieties of heat exchangers which are used according to their location and purpose. They are typically constructed with a shell and tube design or a flat plate design, in which fluids, steam and/or air flow through heat-conducting tubes or conductive plate-walled cavities. Plate heat exchangers can be configured as plate and frame heat exchangers or flat plate heat exchangers, while shell and tube heat exchangers in a tubular design may be designed as tube heat exchangers, finned tube heat exchangers, oil coolers or spiral heat exchangers. Water to water heat exchangers and marine heat exchangers typically have a shell and tube or spiral design, while air to air heat exchangers and water to air heat exchangers are generally configured in a plate, flat plate or plate and frame design.
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Heat Exchanger Terms
- The number of times, one, two or four, the liquid passes through the tube bundles of heat exchangers. Anything greater than a one pass is considered a multi-pass unit.
- Plate the tubes pass through for support that provides a blocked path for the shell side flow, which forces the flows across the tubes and improves the performance of heat transfers. These heat exchangers are shaped in various ways, but are basically segmental.
- The space between the tube bundle baffle plates that is adjusted to maximize effectiveness of heat exchangers.
- Like a channel with straight tubes but without a removable cover. These heat exchangers do not have divider walls and are found at each end of heat exchangers.
- Manages the tube side liquid for circulation through heat exchanger tubes. This can also hold the tube side inlet and outlet connections and/or pass ribs.
- Tubes of heat exchangers parallel to each other from the inlet to the outlet manifold.
- The tubing assembly in removable bundle heat exchangers. This typically includes tubes, tube sheets, baffles, spacers and tie rods.
- A threaded bolt that holds the bonnet onto the core of some types of heat exchangers.
- A kind of front end with a removable cover from which the tube side flows in and out. A dividing wall separates the inlet and outlet flow.
- Same function as a bonnet assembly, except that the cover is removable and provides access to the ends of the tubes.
- What the tubes in heat exchangers drain into.
- The shell and tube assembly in fixed tube sheet heat exchangers.
- The parts that connect the piping to the heat exchangers, come in many varieties.
- Used to cover openings on heat exchangers. Covers are different from end plates because they can be removed to clean the interior of the tube side, without distressing any piping.
- The part used to support heat exchangers and to secure it to the mounting surface when welded or strapped to the shell. Cradles may be fixed or moveable.
- Calculations of part thickness and design of heat exchangers based on the most severe conditions or highest operating pressures seen by heat exchangers, to make the pressure slightly higher.
- A type of nozzle connection that provides a larger nozzle opening between the pipe size and tube bundles of heat exchangers, typically to prevent tube erosion due to high inlet velocities.
- Covers welded to heat exchangers. The majority of end plates are used on bonnet assemblies.
- The first baffle space on a tube bundle, occurring between the tube sheet and the first baffle plate. It is adjusted to maintain the baffle plates within the two shell side nozzles.
- A small copper or stainless steel piece of tubing that is crimped or squeezed onto the tie tube, up against the last baffle, and locks the baffles into position.
- A tube sheet that is an essential part of the core shell assembly of heat exchangers.
- Placed at one end of a removable tube bundle and allowed to move freely with the expansion and contraction of the tube bundle due to temperature changes in operation. It always has a smaller diameter than the immobile tube sheets.
- A device used between two parts that helps prevent leakage in heat exchangers.
- A small perforated-plate or bar assembly in the shell-side nozzle that can also be attached directly to the bundle. This protects and prolongs tube life by breaking up and slowing down the shell side fluid, which slows the erosion of the tubing.
- The side of heat exchangers that contains the tube side inlet and outlet connections in a multi-pass unit.
- A metal or nylon ring on some packed joint heat exchangers that holds the packing rings in place.
- The pressure of heat exchangers during operation and while in use.
- The end of heat exchangers, which contains the packed joint and the packing rings.
- A lane in a tube layout where there are no tubes and where the pass ribs mate.
- A separator plate inside a bonnet or channel that merges with the pass lane surface, used to form multi-pass heat exchangers. By arranging the ribs, a designer can direct the flow of the tube side substance.
- Protects the parts of heat exchangers (tubes, tube sheets and bonnets) from corrosion by acting as a sacrificial anode so that when water is flowing through the tube side it is consumed instead of other parts of heat exchangers.
- The temperature difference of a single fluid as it flows through heat exchangers.
- heat exchangers with a removable tube bundle from the shell casing. This provides easy cleaning of the shell side and also a more feasible way of replacing depleted tubes.
- The end of multi-pass heat exchangers where the tube side fluid reverses its flow. This usually contains only small vent and drain connections.
- The container where the tube bundle is placed and is the conduit for one of the fluids in heat exchangers.
- The assembly into which the tube bundle is placed. It also houses the shell side connections.
- A formed plate that is welded to the shell (or bonnet) pipe. It comes in many styles and shapes, including flanged and dished, elliptical, ellipsoidal and hemispherical.
- The part of heat exchangers where the fluid circulates around the tubes.
- Tubing that holds the baffle plate in place.
- Two or more heat exchangers connected together side by side or one on top of the other. Interconnecting piping hooks these heat exchangers together.
- The tube sheet at one end of a removable bundle that has a larger diameter than the floating tube sheet. The stationary tube sheet is held in a permanent position between the bonnet and shell flanges.
- A flange used at a packed end joint. When a packed joint is tightened, the packing ring is forced into this by the lantern ring/lantern gland.
- Bolted to heat exchangers using bonnet to shell flange bolting.
- Test that detects leaks on the joints of heat exchangers.
- Bars mounted between the tube sheets to support the baffles.
- A tie tube takes the place of the tie rod in small diameter heat exchangers, and serves the same purpose.
- A flow channel for one of the fluids in heat exchangers. These heat exchangers are often parallel within the shell to provide a large surface area for heat transfers.
- Shows the positioning of the tubes inside heat exchangers and the locations of the tie rods.
- The apparatus that the tubes are affixed into that holds them in place. It also provides a seal between the tube-side and shell-side liquid.
- The fluid that circulates through the inside of the tubes of heat exchangers.