Die casting is a metal forming process in which molten metal is forced into mold cavities under high pressure and then cooled in order to form solid metal parts. Facilities where die castings are made are referred to as foundries. Die cast products are typically made from non-ferrous metal castings such as zinc, aluminum, copper, magnesium, lead, tin, bronze and some alloys; alloy tool steels may be formed through die casting as well, although the preferred fabrication method for steel parts is forging.
For many years, die castings have presented a cost-effective and highly versatile alternative to other metal shaping methods such as forging and hand tooling. Die casting designs are capable of reaching much closer tolerances and far more complex shapes than forgings or stamped metals while requiring minimal secondary tooling and processing. Die casters can manufacture large quantities of aluminum die castings, zinc die castings and other metal castings with exceptional detail, surface quality and dimensional consistency at relatively low cost. Die castings are manufactured by hot chamber or cold chamber die casting, under carefully controlled pressures. The demand for die castings, particularly automotive castings and other castings used in industrial products, is very high throughout the world.
Many manufacturing industries use die cast parts both in their products and equipment. Since the advent of cost-effective plastic formation processes like vacuum forming and injection molding, the prominence of die cast metal shapes has diminished somewhat. For example, store cash register housings used to be made almost exclusively of die cast metal. Today, almost all cash registers are made of molded plastic. Despite this shift, the number of industrial, commercial and consumer utilities that are products of die casting is too large to be accurately counted. Parts that require the strength of metal still use whole die cast parts, such as gumball machine bases, sink faucets, gas pump handles and a wide range of other metal parts. Computer and electronics industries use high tolerance magnesium die castings as housings and interior EMI enclosures as well as miniature zinc die cast parts for various electronic equipment applications. In the automotive industry, almost every engine block is a die cast product. Die cast aluminum valve covers are also very commonly applied in automobile engines. Cast zinc products are also widely used as door and cabinetry handles.
Every die cast metal part is formed in a die. Dies are also sometimes called molds, and every mold is specially designed for shaping metal in a certain way. For closed die castings, which are the majority of castings, this mold is cut into two separate metal blocks; in order to form a complete mold, the tooled blocks are placed together with cavities aligned. Once the die has been created, it is sprayed with a lubricant that helps control its temperature and assists in part removal once the cast is complete. The die is then closed, and molten metal is poured into the shot sleeve and injected into the die under high pressure by a plunger. Pressure is maintained within the die until the cast has solidified, then the die is opened and ejector pins push out the solidified "shot." This metal piece is considered a shot until the excess material that has solidified around it during casting is removed. This excess material typically consists of sprue, gate, runners and flash that have formed in channels leading to the die mold and possibly in leakage areas between the mold cavities. The cast part is tooled and deburred to remove this excess and is sometimes put through additional secondary processes such as surface finishing, plating and CNC machining.
Die casting is a high volume, low cost means of forming relatively complex metal parts. Because this forming method does not create a uniform molecular structure or grainflow in the same way that forging and extruding processes do, die cast parts do not have high strength and often have microfractures and grainflow inconsistencies that can lead to part failure or breakage under strain, corrosion or heat stress. For this reason, die cast parts are often heat-treated and carefully tested after manufacturing. There are some cases in which a die cast metal part is less appropriate for a task than a forging is. Consistently, though, die castings can be applied and relied on for their strength and durability if installed and maintained correctly. It is also important to carefully pair the correct die casting with its application; choosing the wrong metal for a die casting application can be catastrophic, particularly when it comes to engines and heavy machinery. A combination of careful design, materials selection, installation and maintenance will ensure the continued reliable operation of a die cast part for many years.
Die Castings Manufacturers - A&B Die Casting
Die Castings Manufacturers - A&B Die Casting
Die Castings Companies- A&B Die Casting
Die Castings Companies- A&B Die Casting
Die casting is a standard metal casting process, in which melted metal is used for forming a molded cavity. This molded cavity is made using two toughened steel dies having shape and size quite similar to an injection mold.
Die casting is a very popular industrial and manufacturing process for creating casting metal products. Mainly, there are two types of die casting processes, both involving machines of a variety of designs. In both the processes, molten metal is forced into the mold at a very high pressure.
This process is called die casting. It is the most convenient industrial process for quick production of accurate metal parts - that are used in a large number of machines and applications. Following are a few other benefits of die casting process -
High-quality parts: The parts created through the die casting process have superior finishing, along with fine edges. Additionally, through die casting, the surface finish of the product can also be chosen to meet the specific application requirement.
High Accuracy: Two hand-carved parts cannot be similar. With die casting, uniformity even in a mass production exercise can be assured. You can create accurate parts - no matter how many there are.
Quick Production: Casting metal parts into desired shapes with hands would take a lot of time. Using die cast tools you can minimize this time involvement.
Create Any Shape and Design: You can design and engineer your die casting tools. This allows you to create parts of any size, shape, finish, and surface texture.
Die casting products are used in applications across industries. Applications that work on metal components have parts made through die casting processes. For different industries and applications, parts are made from diverse die casting processes. The below sections list some of the most popular die casting methods -
Hot-Chamber Die Casting Process
Hot-chamber process is a popular process that employs a cylinder as chamber to regulate the injection mechanism. Sometimes, it is also referred to as gooseneck casting. The cylinder or chamber is completely filled with molten metal and the gooseneck system brings the liquefied metal into the die cavity.
This process allows quick formation of mold injection. That is a great convenience. However, the quick processing also brings many chances of defects and earlier corrosion in design.
Cold-Chamber Die Casting Process
In the design idea, the cold chamber die casting process is quite close to the previously discussed hot-chamber die casting process. However, with this method, a manufacturer tries to increase the corrosion resistance, rather than focusing on increasing the production. In the cold chamber process, the molten metal is poured into the injection manually. This method of part forming is ideal for the metals that have high melting point, such as aluminum.
Low Pressure Die Casting Process
Most die casting process are completed in high-pressure cylinders. Though, there is also a method that is known as low pressure die casting, which is suitable for the creation of aluminum components and the wheels of automobiles.
Apart from these, some other die casting processes are vacuum die casting, squeeze die casting, and semisolid die casting.
Die casting is a manufacturing process for creating metal parts of accurate and desired size/shape. Using well-designed die casting tools, perfectly designed and shaped metal parts can be created to meet the demand of manufacturing businesses across industries. Ideally, melted metal is forced into reusable dies under a high pressure to produce castings that are accurate in design and surface finish.
Production of Die Casting
The production of die castings is a multi-stage process. In the first stage, a steel mold is made that is strong enough to produce thousands of castings, consecutively.
Typically, dies are usually made from alloys (steel) in at least two sections - named as, the fixed die half and the ejector die half. The fixed half is fixed on the side of the molten metal injection system, while the other half is the movable part that is close clamped by the die casting machine.
Melted metal is injected into the die halves tightly clamped together with the help of a die casting tool. This clamping creates a room, in which the liquefied metal solidifies. Then, the two sections are separated again to take out the product. Sometimes, these halves can be simple in design. And, many a times, they can be moveable slides. The design of the sections majorly depends on the type of the casting product.
Machines and Tools Used for Die Casting
No matter how intelligent and advanced your die casting machine is, what is important in the metal part formation process is the sound and secure locking of the die sections. Generally, the rigidness of clamping depends on the surface area of the casting and the pressure that is used to insert the molten metal into the die.
Sometimes, hydraulic cylinders are used in the process to signify the pressure to accomplish a superior and stronger locking. Many die casting manufacturers also use a toggle mechanism to ascertain that the pressure being applied is accurate for the final casting product. Some also use safety interlock system to disallow the opening of die during the production cycle.
Most die casting machines work on two mechanisms - hot chamber and cold chamber. However, the designs of both the types are quite similar. But, their processes differ.
Hot Chamber Machines
Hot chamber die casting machines are used for creating the castings from zinc and low melting point alloys - that do not bring wears to metal pot, chamber, or cylinders.
The injection mechanism in these machines is completely dipped in the molten metal. Hot chamber machines are known for quick operation and casting production.
Cold Chamber Machines
As said earlier that both types of machines are quite close in design; however, they are dissimilar in many of their features. One such feature is -the melted metal is dipped into a cold chamber with the help of an automatic ladle (sometimes, manually).
Another varying aspect is the injection pressure in these machines could cross the 10,000 psi mark. When working with copper alloys, you can take the pressure to over 15,000psi level.
Die casting is a widely used metal manufacturing process. The method makes it possible for a metal fabrication business to create parts of different size, shape, measurement, strength, and surface finish with great precision. To create metal castings, the first step is to create dies with precise size and shape. This article lists a few tips on designing dies for creating die castings-
Die casting is a popular method of metal part manufacturing. In this process, liquefied metal is used for creating a perfectly molded cavity. The melted metal is poured into the die (mold) that has the exact shape and size that the manufacturer wants the casting to have. With this method, metal parts in bulk numbers can be created with great accuracy.
There are many benefits of the die casting metal process -
No Delays in Production - The process does not take much time to complete. The molten metal is forced into the die. Then, it is allowed to cool down at normal temperature. As the metal solidifies, the two parts of the die are separated to take out the hardened casting. No matter how big the order from your client is or how sophisticated its design is, with the die casting method, you can efficiently meet production and delivery deadlines.
Cost-effective - Most die casting manufacturers have a large number of reusable dies, which they use in their production repeatedly. Unlike the injection molding process, the dies are not discarded after the use. This is the reason why products manufactured through the die casting process are more economical than the products made using other metal parts manufacturing methods.
In addition to this, the die casting process does not require the deployment of machines. Sometimes, machines could be used, but only for injecting the molten metal and clamping the sections of the dies. Reusability of dies and less or no requirement of machines help manufacturers keep costs down.
Versatility in Design - You can form a die of a desired shape and size and use it to produce metal castings as demanded by your client. Most of the time, dies are created in two sections; however, sometimes, dies can be of three to four parts. An intelligent designer can create a variety of designs and there is no limit to it.
Complexity Becomes Convenience - Die casting is a simple method, but it can be used to produce complex shapes easily and conveniently.
Durable Parts - Through die casting manufacturing process, parts with higher strength can be created. While the metal is in the liquid state, some add-ons can be introduced (such as a stronger metal or alloy) to increase the strength and durability of the casting.
Metal Parts with Visual Appeal - Your designers can design a resourceful die to create parts of nice visual appeal. Other metal manufacturing processes may not be able to offer the perfectness in design that die casting does.
Multiple Finishing Techniques - As mentioned earlier, with the die casting method, parts can be produced with smooth or textured surfaces. You can apply desired finishing on the surface of the casting to suit the application requirement.
Dimensional Accuracy - Die castings are made from thoroughly-designed dies. This helps the manufacturers to achieve dimensional accuracy in the product. The parts have the exact measurement as asked by the client.
Die casting parts are durable and resistant to wear and tear. They also have a great heat resistance, apart from having better finishing and surface strength.
Die Casting Terms