316 Stainless Steel
Stainless steel 316 (ss 316) is a widely used stainless steel product. It is widely known for offering a combination of affordability and quality. There are many stainless steel suppliers that you can purchase ss 316 from.
As with other stainless steel products, it is designed with the prevention of rust in mind. It has a high tensile strength, and is designed to prevent other types of corrosion as well. It is significantly more corrosion resistant than stainless steel 304. However, there still are limits to the corrosion resistance of this product.
It's also possible for 316 ss to be used in high temperature environments. In fact, it is capable of resisting temperatures of up to 1600 degrees. It's also capable of resisting long term damage in hot environments with temperatures that tend to have temperatures in excess of 122 degrees. It also is designed to resist chemical corrosion, including damage caused by chlorides.
Ingredients of 316 Stainless Steel
As with other steel products, a major ingredient of 316 steel is iron. Carbon is combined with the iron to form steel products, such as 316 steel. 316 stainless steel includes molybdenum within the alloy. It also contains nickel and chromium in significant quantities. The molybdenum in 316 stainless steel helps to protect it from corrosion.
There are several minor components of 316 stainless steel as well. It contains two percent manganese. It also contains 1 percent silicon as well. In addition, 0.3 percent of the alloy is composed of sulfur.
The Important Ingredients of 316 Stainless Steel Explained
The ingredients of grade 316 stainless steel are all elements, and they can be found on the periodic table of elements. This means that they cannot be chemically broken down further.
Iron: Iron is the primary ingredient of all stainless steel products, such as grade 316 stainless steel. It is silver gray in color, and it is extremely malleable and ductile. However, there is a major downside of pure iron. It's extremely prone to rusting in damp air. This is part of the reason why iron is typically combined with other materials.
Carbon: Carbon is a nonmetal, and it is important for the chemical composition of all steel products. However, excessive amounts of carbon are removed from the final product. This ensures that the final product is as strong as possible.
Chromium: Chromium is a metal, but it tends to be somewhat brittle. However, it is quite hard and corrosion resistant. Therefore, it helps to improve the corrosion resistance and hardness of the final product.
Nickel: Nickel is a metal, but it has properties that are different from many other metals. The addition of nickel is important to ensure that the 316 stainless steel has both its chemical and physical properties.
Molybdenum: Molybdenum is a metal that tends to form carbides when it is added to steel, and it is important part of creating the chemical properties of 316 stainless steel. In addition to making the steel more corrosion resistant, it makes the steel easier to weld.
316 stainless steel contains 16% chromium, 10% nickel, and 2% molybdenum.
316 Stainless Steel Properties
There are several 316 stainless steel properties that set it apart from other stainless steel products. It is designed to be easy to weld. It's even easy to weld if it contains filler metals. However, some versions of the product require annealing after the weld. However, other versions do not require annealing.
The product also is known for being quite ductile. This means that it can be easily drawn into wires. It also is quite resistant to pressure.
Forms of Stainless Steel 316
Stainless steel 316 comes in several different forms. It can be purchased in coil form. The coils of stainless steel can be a variety of lengths. However, it can also be purchased in plate, sheet coil, sheet, and bar form. These products can also be a variety of sizes. In addition, you can purchase stainless steel 316 as part of structural and tubular products.
There are several types of stainless steel 316 bars available, and they are all available from numerous vendors. Some of them are referred to as hex bars, and they have a hexagonal shape. Other 316 ss bars are round. However, some stainless steel 316 bars are flat or square. It also is possible to purchase stainless steel 316 as a mesh.
Different Types of 316 Stainless Steel
There are two main types of 316 stainless steel. One is the standard version of 316 stainless steel . The other version is stainless steel 316L . Stainless steel 316L is much more protected from carbide precipitation. 316L stainless steel also is immune to sensitization, and it contains only small amounts of carbon--a maximum of .03%. Because of this low carbon percentage, L-grade stainless steel is much easier to machine than standard 316 stainless steel. Standard stainless 316 can be hardened with cold working instead of heat treatment, and it is not immune to sensitization. As a result 316L stainless steel is often used for heavy gauge welding.
Uses for Stainless Steel 316
Stainless steel 316 is used for commercial, residential, and industrial purposes. Here are some places where it can be found:
- Equipment for chemical processing
- Evaporators and Condensers
- Heat exchangers
- Equipment for the pharmaceutical industry
- Equipment in the textile industry
- Boat fittings
- Pump trim
- Equipment to mitigate pollution
- Machinery that's used to produce plastics, rubber, and paper
- Laboratory benches
- Lab equipment
- The aircraft industry
Downsides of Stainless Steel 316
One downside of stainless steel 316 is that it is somewhat difficult to machine. This is due to the fact that the metal is exceptionally strong. Still, it's often machined, and it isn't one of the most difficult steel products to machine.
However, special equipment is necessary, such as chip breakers and curlers. In addition, large quantities of cutting fluid must be used. The chip characteristics of the steel are known for being quite tough when the machining is finished. It also tends to harden quite rapidly. Therefore, it is best to use low speed and heavy positive feed.
If you are using the stainless steel over a large area, stainless steel 316 may not be the best pick. This is due to the fact that it is a bit more expensive than other types of stainless steel. However, in some cases, its physical properties may be necessary for your needs.
While it tends to be easier to weld than other forms of stainless steel, it still is not the easiest metal to weld. Therefore, if you need a metal that is exceptionally easy to weld, this may not be the best one to choose. All forms of stainless steel dissipates heat significantly faster than many other metals. If you need to quickly weld stainless steel 316, you also may need to use a higher temperature.
How Stainless Steel 316 Is Made
First, the raw materials are combined. Then, they are heated to become molten. It typically takes around 8-12 hours for the materials to melt, and the blast furnace is heated to an exceptionally high temperature of more than 2500 degrees. However, the length of time that it takes to melt the materials varies depending on the equipment that's being used.
Then, the molten is put into a cast. At this step, the steel begins to harden into standardized shapes. These shapes are blooms (rectangular), slabs, rods, tube rounds, and billets. Billets can either be round or square. The size of billets also varies considerably. While the time that it takes to cool varies depending on a variety of factors, it typically takes a significant period of time for the steel to fully cool in the cast.
During forming, steel is passed through large rollers and heated. This can turn the steel into a sort of wire. Blooms and billets can be made into bars. Slabs can be formed into plates, sheets, or strips. These materials vary significantly in size.
However, there are certain standard dimensions for bars. They are typically 0.25 inches in diameter, and they can come in different shapes. Often times, bars are hexagon shaped, squares, octagon shaped, or round.
The diameter of wire also varies. However, it is generally not more than 0.5 inches thick. However, stainless steel 316 wire can be much thinner than this. Plate is always at least 0.1875 inches thick. It also is at least 10 inches in width. Strips are at least 0.185 thick, and they are under 24 inches wide. Sheets are 0.1875 inches in thickness, and they are at least 24 inches wide.
There are different methods that can be used to cut stainless steel 316. Mechanical methods are often used. This can involve using exceptionally sharp blades and large amounts of force. In other cases, a steel cutting saw is used. Sometimes, processes known as blanking and nibbling are used. However, high temperatures can also be utilized. In some cases, this is done with a high temperature flame. However, plasma can also be used.
While finishes are not always added, they are quite commonplace. Finishes can sometimes help to improve the longevity of the steel. Also, it can be used to prevent objects from sticking to the metal. In other cases, the finish can make the steel easier to clean. These are just some possible uses of finishes for stainless steel 316, and there are many possible uses of them. In some cases, a mirror finish can be applied. This makes the steel highly reflective.
316 Stainless Steel Providers
If you are interested in purchasing stainless steel 316, it's best to get it from the stainless steel suppliers listed on IQS Directory. There are numerous suppliers of stainless steel 316 listed with the directory. While many of them offer raw stainless steel 316, others are made into formed products. For example, stainless steel is often formed into tubes. If you need a finished stainless steel 316 product, it's essential to ensure that the product you need is offered by the manufacturer that you choose.
Cost of Stainless Steel 316
The product tends to be available for a bit more than a dollar a pound from the manufacturer. However, it can often be available for significantly less than a dollar a pound, especially if it is purchased as scrap metal. In these cases, it could be as little as 70 cents per pound. The price varies considerably from one distributor to another. This is why it is essential to compare prices between a number of different manufacturers. The price also has fluctuated significantly over the course of time, and there are likely to be more fluctuations in the future.