Small motors use a fraction of a horsepower (or 745.7 watts) of power to run and are therefore used in small applications and sometimes referred to as fractional horse power or FHP motors. They consist of four basic parts: the axle, enclosure (typically a cylinder of sorts), nylon end cap, and two battery leads. The simple design of small motors lends to their reliability and durability.
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Applications of Small Motors
Small motors are used in many industries, such as automotive products, robotics, home appliances, medical appliances, and in industrial applications, such as linear devices, communications, and air conditioning. Specific types of small motors are used in welding, small centrifuge devices, pitching machines, wheel chairs, door openers, pumps, and frozen yogurt machines, among other uses.
How Small Motors Work
The internal configurations of small electric motors vary depending on the purpose for which the motor is used. However, all small motors use electrical power to rotate, powering the devices to which they are connected. The motor spins in opposite directions when the battery leads are switched with the speed of the rotation being connected to the amount of voltage it receives. In a similar way, the torque or starting torque of the motor is dependent on the amount of current applied, either from direct current or alternating current sources.
Although they are suitable for many uses, small universal motors are primarily used for torque applications, in which they are used intermittently at high speeds. Continuous use would likely wear out the motor more quickly, as they are not designed for heavy duty operations.
Small Motor Design and Customization
Due to the wide range of small motor use, they often need to be customized to fit specific products and applications. With variables in terms of voltage range, horsepower, diameter, and RPM ratings, the possibilities for small electric motors are broad.
Small motors can be brush or brushless. In those units with brushes, the brushes transfer power from the battery to the commentator, allowing the motor to move. Other design-based options for small motors, especially those powered by DC, include the specifics of magnets or electromagnets and wire components used in the construction of the motor.
Benefits of Using Small Motors
Small motors are a popular choice for many manufacturing needs because of their cost-effectiveness in terms of maintenance and upkeep. The lifespan of small electric motors may be reduced depending on the specifics of the application for which they are used, but the benefits in both terms of compact size and minimal power usage are high.