12v motors are a type of electric motor that operates based on 12 voltages (a unit of electrical force) of energy that they convert into mechanical energy to be utilized in the powering of various machinery or equipment. Technically, a voltage is equal to energy per unit charge, meaning that it is the force that causes an electrical current to be driven between two points.
12 voltages (also referred to as volts) is the most common measurement of volts used in smaller electric motor applications.
Larger voltage amounts, such as 24 voltages, may be required for extremely heavy-duty electrical motor applications. Voltages are also often referred to as electric potential energy, which is defined as the amount of energy that is required to move a unit of electrical charge to a specific point within a static, or un-moving, electric field.
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Common Applications of 12v Motors
- Industrial Manufacturing
- For use in the powering of smaller factory automation equipment.
- To power home improvement tools, such as sanders and power drills, as well as household appliances, such as blenders and dishwashers.
- For the powering of small vehicles, such as scooters and motor-driven bicycles.
- To power small electronic devices, such as cigarette lighters and police sirens.
Types of 12v Motors
While all electric motors provide the same basic function of converting electrical energy to mechanical energy, the method by which they convert the energy can differ greatly. In addition, 12v motors are not categorized by the method in which they covert energy but by the amount of electric force used in converting the energy. As a result, 12v motors may encompass many different types of electric motors and are not specifically referring to only one design or type of an electric motor.
Most commonly, 12v motors are brushless DC motors, which are capable of operation without the use of brushes to transfer the electrical current. While brushed motors may run into possible complications due to their more complex design, the design of 12v brushless DC motors eliminated has eliminated many of those issues. The main components of a 12v brushless motor are that of a permanent magnet external rotor, either three coils or a single coil, a type of sensor, and drive electronics. Instead of using brushes to transfer the electric currents, 12v brushless motors transfer the current by means of the sensors, which are widely known as Hall effect sensors. While 12v motors can also refer to a type of alternating current (AC) motor, it is rare compared to the overwhelming popularity of 12v DC motors.