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Pressure Vessels Manufacturers and Suppliers

IQS Directory provides a detailed list of pressure vessel manufacturers and suppliers. Find pressure vessel companies that can design, engineer, and manufacture pressure vessels to your specifications. Peruse our website to review and discover top pressure vessel manufacturers with roll over ads and complete product descriptions. Connect with the pressure vessel companies through our hassle-free and efficient request for quote form. You are provided company profiles, website links, locations, phone numbers, product videos, and product information. Read reviews and stay informed with product new articles. Whether you are looking for manufacturers of galvanized holding tanks, pressure vessel designs, and unfired pressure vessels of every type, IQS is the premier source for you.

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If you are looking for innovative pressure vessels, you've come to the right place! We actively manage your project every step of the way. We keep you informed of what we are doing to ensure we keep up to your standards and delivery times. We will deliver our products on time-every time! Contact us today or visit our website to find out more!
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All of our pressure vessels are fairly priced and we take pride in saying we are an ASME U, UM, R, S and TUV certification manufacturer. We also offer CRN registration & CE / PED certification upon request. Here at BEPeterson we are experts in a number of fields including ASME tanks, filter vessels, PED pressure vessels, penstocks, pressure vessels and much more. If you would like more information please give us a call today!
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Our pressure vessels are among the best in the industry. We provide our customers around the world with high quality products that are built to last. We manufacture all our products according to customer demand and in compliance with the highest ASME safety standards. We believe in doing things right the first time. Contact us today to learn more!
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Tanks in small batches at low prices. Hays offers code and non-code tanks, 6" to 36" diameter, stainless, aluminum and carbon steel tanks. Produced at low cost on our quick set-up automatic production line. Both simple and complex tanks. Call or check out our website for more information.
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Founded in 1955, The Halvorsen company has over 60 years of experience in producing pressure vessels and providing custom metal fabrication. We strive for excellence in our products and our customer service, all for a competitive price. For a complete list of our products and services, give us a call or visit our website today!
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Industry Information

Pressure Vessels

Pressure vessels, often referred to as air pressure tanks are used for the storage and containment of fluids, vapors or gases at pressure levels greater than that of atmospheric pressure. They are designed to operate at pressures more than 15 psi, and are made of a variety of metals, high-strength plastic or fiberglass. The tanks are usually cylindrical in shape with a horizontal or vertical orientation.

Pressure vessels are able contain a wide variety of substances and can be designed with specific purposes in mind. They are used for various industrial applications within the chemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, oil and fuel and plastics industries. Many tanks are required to be registered ASME pressure vessels and adhere to strict safety and quality regulations put forth by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to ensure the safety of those working with pressure tanks. Certified ASME tanks are important because due to the nature of pressure vessels, even the tiniest leak can cause a major explosion or shrapnel damage. There are a number of different types of pressure vessels. Autoclaves like grease kettles use steam and pressure to cause chemical reactions producing many different substances, including food, lubricants and chemicals, and process tanks are designed to hold and store liquids. High pressure vessels are the strongest type of pressure tank, and are used with the highest psi. They are typically stainless steel vessels, which provide the best resistance to pressure, temperature and corrosion. While many pressure vessels are used in manufacturing facilities to produce substances, others are used in different applications such as: expansion tanks found in every residential closed water heating system, water pressure tanks as part of wells, and vacuum tanks as an integral component in sewage applications. These vessels are mostly used to store substances short term.

The substances contained in a pressure vessel, whether it be gas, liquid or a mixture of materials, determine the design components such as vessel material, size, volume, shape, temperature and pressure level. When a substance is stored under pressure, the potential for rupture and leakage is greater. The risk of damage from a pressure vessel increases when vessel contents are toxic, flammable or gaseous substances. Engineers take precautions when creating a pressure vessel to limit the occurrence of vessel failure. The division of vessel creation into steps, which include design, construction, testing and inspection, keeps safety hazards to a minimum. In the design process, engineers determine the logistics of how pressure vessel manufacturers will create the vessels. Engineers must determine the pressure level, temperature, material components, size and shape. All pressure vessels are measured in gallons, and range anywhere from 20 to several hundred thousand gallons depending on their application. They are often equipped with many different components, such as ladders or stairs, removable or detachable lids, sight glass for observation, heating and cooling systems and propellers or agitation systems for mixing applications. Engineers also consider the corrosion resistance and abrasion potential of the vessel before deciding these factors. Pressure levels are also taken into account before deciding upon a material and shape. Pressure vessel manufacturers fabricate a range of pressure vessels; from a few hundred pounds per square inch (psi) to measuring up to 150,000 psi.

Vessel design and maintenance must be considered carefully as even a small imperfection increases the risk of pressure vessel failure, posing a serious safety hazard. This is the reason for stringent quality and manufacturing standards placed on pressure vessels by the ASME. As pressure vessels have a temperature range that can exceed 750°F and the contents of those vessels are constantly under high pressure, operator safety is of large importance. There are standard regulations and formulas to which the pressure vessel manufacturers' designs adhere in order to avoid potential hazards associated with pressure containment. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) provides a Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code on which engineers base pressure vessel design. Although the ASME Code remains the most common standard, engineers also follow other codes, such as that of the American Petroleum Institute (API). Rigorous analyses for complex pressure vessels are created when standard design rules do not apply. In such instances, engineers conduct intensive mathematical and scientific analyses to ensure design and construction methods meet the stringent requirements of pressure vessels: material, size, shape, temperature and pressure level of the pressure vessel, as well as personal preferences.

The materials used to create pressure vessels must be high strength and durable, and able to maintain their shape and properties even under pressure. Common materials can include carbon alloy steel, stainless steel, titanium, zirconium, aluminum, nickel alloys and niobium. Engineers usually create vessels using one of three manufacturing processes-forging, welding and brazing, all of which involve heating pieces of metal and joining them together. Forging refers to the formation of metal parts through the application of heat and pressure. Welding involves melting two similar metals together by heating their edges until molten. Finally, during the brazing process, metals are joined by filling the space between them with a nonferrous metal. Most of the metal has been cold rolled, which creates a stronger metal than hot rolling. They are also often galvanized, quenched or tempered to increases temperature resistance and tensile strength. Testing of the pressure vessel ensures design technique success, proper vessel operation and certification approval. Regular inspection remains necessary to ensure that the vessel continues to meet industrial standards and safety requirements.


Pressure Vessel Manufacturers
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers - B.E. Peterson, Inc.
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers - B.E. Peterson, Inc.
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers - B.E. Peterson, Inc.
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers - B.E. Peterson, Inc.
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers - B.E. Peterson, Inc.
Pressure Vessel Manufacturers - Midwest Imperial Steel Fabricators, LLC



Pressure Vessels: Application, Shapes, and Safety Features

Pressure vessels are specially designed containers for gases and liquids. It holds gases or liquid at a pressure significantly greater than the atmospheric pressures. A standard pressure vessel can endure pressure greater than 15 psi. However, based on the need, vessels can be made to withstand pressure up to 10,000 psi.

Application of pressure vessels

In different applications, the pressure in a pressure vessel is achieved either from a direct source or an indirect one by the application of heat. Pressure vessels have an array of applications, ranging from compressed gas storage tanks, such as oxygen and nitrogen, to autoclaves used in laboratories to hydro-pneumatic tanks and refrigerant vessels. Whether it is oil refineries, petrochemical plants, mining, submarines, or nuclear reactors, all use pressure vessels at one place or another. Airplanes are a unique example of pressure vessels; the entire structure of a plane is a pressure vessel, which does two functions -- enduring the cabin pressure and maneuvering load of the aircraft.

Shape of pressure vessels

A pressure vessel can be made of practically any shape; however, typically, pressure vessels are made in the shapes of cylinders, cones, and spheres, as these shapes withstand pressure more efficiently than rectangular or square shapes. The most common design consists of a cylinder where hemispherical end caps work as heads. Other than the hemispherical caps, torispherical domes are also commonly used.

In cylindrical pressure vessels with caps on each end, the cylindrical part is typically made from a pipe. Even larger cylindrical vessels that have a diameter, for example, 600 mm, are made from seamless pipe, so they can eliminate the need for inspection issues. However, they are more expensive.

When a high-performance pressure vessel is required, a spherical vessel can be appropriate, as the shape roughly is twice as strong than a cylindrical pressure vessel. However, only a small number of gas containers are made in the shape of a sphere due to their complex manufacturing, which escalates the construction cost.

Design features of pressure vessels that make them safer

All pressure vessels are designed by following a "leak before burst" philosophy. They are designed to crack under higher operating pressure to allow gases and fluid to leak out. By this mechanism, pressure vessel blasts can be avoided, which have taken many lives in the past. Under pressure vessels standardizing agencies, including the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), pressure vessels are required to leak before blast.

Other than this feature, all vessels are equipped with safety valves that do not allow pressure to exceed the predetermined level. Commonly, safety valves consist of a pressure relief valve. This type of valve sets off when the pressure exceeds the limits and it automatically releases the contained material. This small feature has saved many lives over the years, making pressure vessels safe for a range of applications such as water pressure tanks, mixers, air pressure tanks, vacuum tanks, and heat exchangers.

Pressure Vessels: Manufacturing Materials and Design

For manufacturing pressure vessels, different types of materials are used based on various applications. Since pressure vessels have been a source of many industrial catastrophes, only high strength materials are used for making them.

Steel

Typically, pressure vessels are manufactured from carbon steel; however, when the application is demanding, better versions of steel are used, such as hardened steel and stainless steel. The cylindrical and spherical parts can be hot or cold rolled to give its shape as well as giving mechanical strength. When pressure vessels are used in a cold environment, steel is required to have high impact resistance. Properties of steel can be modified by welding; therefore, guidelines are chalked out for proper welding. In facilities where the environment is corrosive, corrosion resistant steel, such as stainless steel, is used for making vessels.

Composite materials

When very high pressure is not involved in a process, composite materials like carbon fiber are used. Composite pressure vessels are made by a fabrication technique called filament technique in which filaments are wounded on a metal liner. The vessels made with this technique have high tensile strength but are lighter. However, the process is complex, thus can be expensive. Polymers like polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are also used for making carbonated containers.

Concrete

Pressure vessels can also be made from materials that are weak in tension such as polished concrete veneer. To reinforce the structure, cables are wounded around the structure or within the wall of the vessels.

Other than the manufacturing material, the lining material of the vessels is also important, as it endures a portion of the pressure and helps in making the structure leak proof. Many materials, such as polymers, ceramics, and even metals, can be used for lining pressure vessels.

Designing pressure vessels

According to a mandate, the thickness of pressure vessels should be proportional to the radius and pressure of the vessel. Moreover, the thickness of the wall should be inversely proportional to construction materials' normal stress. A pressure vessel that has such properties will have enough tensile strength to hold gases effectively. This is a basic relationship. Based on this relationship, for different applications, the wall thickness of a vessel scales with the radius of the tank, and similarly, the mass of the vessel scales with the volume a gas occupies in a vessel. However, the relationship varies with the shape of a vessel, which, based on the requirements, can be spherical, cylindrical, or conical. For different shapes, there is a different formula to calculate the mass of a vessel, and there are other factors too that should be considered, such as density of the pressure material, maximum stress that can be allowed, and pressure and volume of a vessel.

A vessel designed using these formulas can operate safely under various pressure and temperature conditions. As pressure vessels can be dangerous equipment, the designing of a vessel is determined by the codes given by different standard agencies such as the ASME.

Tests for Detecting Leaks and Strength of Pressure Vessels

Pressure vessels have been a source of many fatalities in the industrial history. Therefore, different authorities across the world govern the operation, manufacturing, and design of pressure vessels. As many authorities and legislations are involved in pressure vessels at the global level, the definition of a pressure vessel and parameters for safe operation varies from region to region. However, all definitions and guidelines take into account the parameters regarding safe operating pressure and temperature and testing of various vessels such as water pressure tanks, ASME pressure vessels, pressure tanks, mixers, air pressure tanks, and vacuum tanks.

In the United States, the organization that dispenses codes for safe operation of pressure vessels is the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and their code is called the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). Under a law in the United States, all pressure vessels that contain pressure more than 15 psi are required to conform to the code. To make sure that a vessel is manufactured properly, an agency performs inspections to certify it. Every vessel has a stamp of ASME that helps in tracing the manufacturer; it also provides other information related to the vessel.

In all the standards, special focus is given to testing, inspection, and certification of pressure vessels. And, for testing, different types of tests methods are used such as leak testing tests and other nondestructive tests.

Leak and strength tests

  • The hydrostatic test is a common test in which pressure vessels are tested for leaks and strength. In the test, a vessel is filled with water and pressure is exerted to see if the vessel can withstand it.
  • Instead of water, gaseous fluids too can be used to detect leaks -- this method is called pneumatic testing
  • Another common test involves vacuum; a vessel is exerted under negative pressure to check whether there are leaks. The test is called vacuum test.

The advanced non-destructive methods make use of modern technology to detect leaks and to check the strength of a vessel.

  • Radiography is now a common non-destructive test, where a pressure vessel is exposed to radio waves to detect discontinuities, voids, and holes. The working principle of radiography is similar to what you see in a hospital. As the radio waves go through discontinuities, it decreases the attenuation of the waves, and faults thus are detected.
  • Another method utilizes ultrasonic waves. A metallic vessel is subjected to signal pulses, and if there are manufacturing faults and discontinuities, they reflect the waves back to the sensor.
  • The magnetic practice test is used for revealing discontinuities in the construction. In this method, a pressure vessel is exposed to a magnetic flux and if holes and voids are present in the vessel, they perturb the flux, which is detected by the system by applying a ferromagnetic material. The equipment consists of contact probes, an electricity source, and a ferromagnetic material. In the probes, the magnetic field is produced by flowing electric current, which could be either AC or DC, and then the vessel is exposed to the ferromagnetic material. This test is used only for vessels that are made of carbon and low-alloy steel.



Types of Pressure Vessels

  • ASME tanks are pressure vessels that meet the standards set by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
  • Autoclaves are closed pressure vessels that use steam and high pressure to sterilize instruments.
  • Cookers are a type of pressure vessel that are used to bring about a physical change in their contents. Examples of this are digesters, vulcanizers and rendering tanks.
  • Fired pressure vessels utilize fuel combustion to generate heat. Examples include boilers, furnaces, gas water heaters and autoclaves.
  • Heat exchangers include a variety of configurations of vessel equipment in which heating or cooling is performed on one side of the vessel and the opposite conversion on the other side.
  • Kettles are pressure vessels that use steam to heat fluids.
  • Pressure tanks are vessels that hold contents at pressure levels greater than atmospheric pressure.
  • Rotating pressure vessels usually contain steam, which is then used to dry articles such as paper, fabric or plastics. The materials are passed over the rotating vessel via rollers to come into direct contact with the emitting steam.
  • Steam jacketed vessels are used to heat liquid to a moderate degree. Steam is distributed between the inner and outer shells of the vessel and is used in the commercial preparation of foods such as candy.
  • Storage vessels include air tanks, hot water tanks, propane or other gas tanks, which contain contents under pressure when needed.
  • Thick walled pressure vessels are the least common. They are any cylinder [shell] ratio that is 10% or more the ratio of the thickness to the inside diameter.
  • Thin walled pressure vessels are one of the most common of the vessels. They are any cylinder [shell] ratio which is 10% or less of the ratio of the thickness to the diameter, or a pressure vessel is thinned walled if the diameter is 10-times or more of the thickness.
  • Transportable vessels are in contrast to those that are stationary. Examples of such are those are road or rail tankers; propane and gas tanks are considered to be in this category.
  • Unfired pressure vessels are not exposed to direct heat. Generated heat, if any, is produced through electric heat or steam, and sometimes through the chemical reactions of vessel contents.
  • Water pressure tanks hold water at levels exceeding atmospheric pressure.


Pressure Vessel Terms

Agitator - Device used for agitation of the product or substance found inside a pressure vessel.
 
Atmospheric Pressure - The amount of force the atmosphere exerts upon the earth's surface, measuring 14.7 psi at sea level.
 
Baffle - Primarily used in pressure vessels with agitators. Commonly used to increase the amount of agitation or mixing.
 
Boiler - Pressure vessel that heats water and creates and heats using combustible fuels or energy.
 
Brittle Fracture - Fracture of steel associated with exposure to very low temperatures often in circumstances in which stress levels have not exceeded yield strength.
 
Corrosion Allowance - An increase in pressure vessel shell thickness designed to compensate for the corrosion and abrasion of certain pressure vessels; protective coatings and linings are also added to pressure vessels to prevent corrosion.
 
Creep - Permanent deformation of steel caused by strength reduction resulting from exposure to high temperatures.
 
Cryogenic Temperatures - Extremely low temperatures, ranging from -250° C to -100° C
(-418° F to -148° F).
 
Design Pressure - The maximum internal and external pressure limits that a pressure vessel can withstand, usually equivalent to 110% of pressure vessel operating pressure.
 
Design Temperature - The temperature of the pressure vessel metal when the vessel is subjected to the design pressure.
 
Dewar - Pressure vessel created to sustain cryogenic temperatures.
 
Ferrule - A nozzle made for sanitary and low pressure applications. A ferrule contains an inset gasket surface and is designed to work with clamps instead of bolting.
 
Fluid - Any substance, whether liquid, gas or vapor, in which the particles move freely, resulting in no permanent shape and low resistance to pressure.
 
Fusible Plugs - Pressure relief mechanisms initiated with rapid pressure increases resulting from a fire.
 
Heat Transfer Surface (HTS) - Broad terminology for providing a pressure vessel or pressure tank with a means of temperature control.
 
Hydropneumatic Tanks - Pressure vessels in which both liquids and gases are collected.
 
Hydrostatic Test - Test in which pressure vessels are subjected to 150% of the design pressure.
 
ID (Inside Diameter) - Diameter of the pressure vessels measured from the interior of the pressure vessels surfaces. This dimension does not include the material thickness.
 
Lifting Lugs - Lugs attached to the outside of the pressure vessels specifically placed to help aid lifting of the pressure vessels.
 
Manway - Access port to the internal region of the pressure vessels.
 
Megapascal - Unit of measurement equal to 1,000,000 pascals, used to express tensile strength and yield strength.
 
National Board Inspection Code - Worldwide standard for pressure vessel inspection, alteration and repair.
 
Newton - Unit of force producing an acceleration rate of one meter per second per second on a one-kilogram mass.
 
Nozzle - The spout through which fluid is released from or introduced into pressure vessels.
 
Operating Pressure - The pressure at which pressure vessels operate while in use.
 
Pascal - Unit of pressure measurement equal to a Newton per square meter.
 
Psi (Pounds per Square Inch) - Unit that measures the amount of pressure applied to an object.
 
Relief Valve - Pressure relief mechanism that automatically releases liquids from pressure vessels when vessel pressure exceeds set pressure, and closes when the pressure level returns to normal.
 
Rupture Disks - Pressure relief mechanism designed for single usage that instantly relieves pressure in a pressure vessel. These can be used in conjunction with other pressure relief mechanisms.
 
Safety Relief Valve - Pressure relief mechanism that automatically releases liquid and vapor streams from pressure vessels when vessel pressure exceeds set pressure, and closes when the pressure level returns to normal.
 
Safety Valve - Pressure relief mechanism that automatically releases gases and vapors from pressure vessels when vessel pressure exceeds set pressure, and closes when the pressure level returns to normal.
 
Set Pressure - The predetermined pressure at which a pressure relief device begins to discharge fluid.
 
Straight Flange - Small, cylindrical pressure vessel component consisting of a bolted rim connected to the body of the pressure vessel.
 
Strain - The change in an object's dimensions, resulting from the application of force.
 
Stress - The force responsible for causing a change in an object's dimensions.
 
Stress Corrosion Cracking - Fracture resulting from the combination of corrosion and tensile stress.  
Tensile Strength - The maximum stress level exerted upon a test specimen before the specimen fractures.
 
Tensile Stress - The force applied to a test specimen to produce strain.
 
Vessel Heads - The end of a pressure vessel, including flanged and dished, ellipsoidal, flat, conical and hemispherical.
 
Vessel Shell - The pressure vessel body.
 
Yield Strength - Amount of stress producing an inelastic strain in a pressure vessel. Exceeding the yield strength can result in permanent deformation of the vessel.



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