Fiberglass is a reinforced plastic material that is made from tiny, interwoven fibers of glass. Because of how tightly the fibers are woven together, fiberglass is highly strong and resistant to heat, and are commonly used within a plastic resin. The way the fibers are intertwined depend on the object that the fiberglass is reinforcing. The term “fiberglass” originated as the name of a specific brand of insulation before evolving into a generic term for the material. Because of its versatility, fiberglass can be used for numerous applications across a wide range of industries. Just a few examples include casts, pipes, roofing, water tanks, swimming pools, surfboards, automobile components, bath tubs, and boat hulls.
Fiberglass can have a multitude of physical properties that make it suitable for a variety of uses. For instance, it is resistant to weather, heat, flame, and various corrosive elements, and is available in a variety of different textures. Another feature that makes different types of fiberglass distinguishable from each other is the length of the fibers within the material. According to the length and shape, glass fiber can be classified as continuous, or chopped. Continuous fibers, simply put, are uncut, unaltered fibers and continue to be interwoven into the fiberglass material. Chopped fibers, or discontinuous fibers, on the other hand, are much shorter.
Fiberglass can be rated for compression and tension, using units called megapascals (MPa). The pascal (Pa) is a unit used to measure pressure. Adding the prefix “mega” multiplies a pascal by 106, or 1,000,000. There are numerous types of fiberglass available that are classified in compression and tensile strength. One example is polyester resin, which is one of the most common types of fiberglass. Polyester resin is not reinforced, and has a compression and tensile strength of 140 MPa and 55 MPa respectively, which is quite low. S-Glass Epoxy is on the opposite end of the spectrum, with a tensile strength of 2,358 MPa and its compression strength higher than 350 MPa.
The manufacturing process for fiberglass is known as pultrusion, which derives from the process of extrusion. The main difference between the two processes is that pultrusion involves the pulling of the material through a die, in contrast with extrusion, in which the material is pushed. The main materials that make up fiberglass—thermosetting plastic, thermoplastic, and the glass fibers—are pulled and taken through a series of processes. The raw material—which is typically composed of resin, fillers and additives—may be taken through a tension roller, soak in resin, pass through a heating source, and make one final trip through the machine’s pulling mechanism until the fiberglass is completed.
Because of its high resistance to various elements, fiberglass is commonly used for insulative purposes. Glass wool gets its name because of its wool-like texture due to how the glass fibers are arranged. Glass wool is the most popular insulative material made from glass fibers. Anyone who has taken on or assisted in a renovation project may have seen it at a home center, as it is often cotton-candy pink in color and comes in a rolled-up blanket. Glass wool insulates by trapping numerous tiny pockets of air between its glass fibers. In addition to heat resistance, glass wool can also be used for soundproofing. Despite its many reliable properties, glass wool is not without its faults. It is not resistant to moisture, as it can trap moisture in its pockets and make the material a breeding ground for mold. Because fiberglass insulation is contained in an enclosed space, it does not pose a major health risk. However, in handling fiberglass insulation, there are a few measures that should be taken. Particles from the insulation can become airborne and be harmful if large amounts are inhaled, and the fibers may cause skin irritation. Fortunately, both of these risks can be easily eliminated by wearing a breathing mask, goggles, pants, and long-sleeved shirts.
Depending on the application for which the fiberglass may be used as well as the specific requirements of the client, the fiberglass fabrication processes and the physical properties of the material may vary. Because of its versatility, anyone who is in search of fiberglass material will be able to find fiberglass with the physical properties that best suits the desired application. If you are having difficulty finding the most ideal fiberglass material for your application, or if you simply do not know where to start, an experienced fiberglass manufacturer will be both able and willing to assist you.
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Fiberglass Informational Video