Dynamometers, which are also known as dynomometers, dynometers and dynos, are devices that measure the force generated by something, usually an engine. They can also be used to determine horsepower, maximum rotary speed and maximum power absorption. They are sometimes called motor testers when used for these purposes, though the term "motor tester" is frequently used in reference to electric motor diagnostic equipment.
They come in a variety of shapes and sizes, both of which are determined based on usage and placement of the equipment. The two main types are engine dynamometers and chassis dynamometers. Both are widely used by the automobile industry as well as in industrial and manufacturing plants. Some dynamometers are torque testers; torque testers are usually stationary rollers on which the wheels of a vehicle are placed. The rotation of the vehicle's wheels is then measured by the rollers. The results of such tests vary in accuracy; some can have a margin of error that is less than one percent. Chassis dynamometers are usually 15% to 20% lower in their measurements than other devices because some energy is lost as it travels through the drivetrain. Brake testers are a type of dynamometer used to measure the effectiveness of vehicle brake systems. They should not be confused with brake dynamometers, which are so named because of the process by which they measure performance. Other special dynamometer configurations include PTO dynamometers, hydraulic dynamometers and eddy current dynamometers. Typical applications for dynamometers include measuring torque and RPM on chain or belt drives, gearboxes, fluid power systems, gas or diesel systems, transmissions, turbines and other engines used in automotive, aircraft, aerospace, marine and industrial processes.
Dynamometers take measurements in many different ways. Some varieties can be small instruments composed simply of a transducer, a strain gauge and a display screen. In such devices, the force of the torque is transformed into an electrical signal that is amplified, converted and displayed as a measurement. Other motor testers work by using voltage and current probes attached to input wires of the motor to connect internal voltmeters, ammeters and ohmmeters to the system. Some use a non-contact speed sensor to measure the motor shaft speed and determine the number of rotations per minute. Other options and parameters include a load point test where the motor is tested while under a full load, no load or a locked rotor. Direction, torque, current, voltage, power, efficiency and cut-out speed may be determined by motor tester equipment because of the range of available options that meet the variety of needs. Brake testers are used to check vehicles for brake defects, to verify the effectiveness of repair work, to perform regular safety audits and to test vehicles that have been involved in accidents to determine if their brake systems were functioning at the time of the crash.
Dynos are used in many applications because of the variety of models and variations. Chassis dynamometers measure an engine's torque output at the wheels of an automobile. The vehicle is placed on rollers that turn the wheels at a certain speed. The RPM of the rollers allows a computer to calculate the torque of the engine. Inertia dynos are a kind of chassis dyno that work the same way and are particularly useful for back-to-back runs after changes and improvements have been made to the engine. Hydraulic dynamometers are machines that measure the power of an engine by using a cell filled with liquid to increase its load; they are also a subset of chassis dynos. Engine dynamometers are the other main kind of dynamometer. They require that the engine be removed from a vehicle and are therefore widely used by automobile manufacturers, engine rebuilders, and producers of high-performance vehicles such as race cars. Engine dynamometer tests produce accurate and repeatable results. A brake dynamometer takes measurements by applying variable loads to the engine and observing how the engine maintains the RPM as the braking force attempts to slow it down. Eddy current dynamometers are a type of brake dynos that use a conductor passing through a changing magnetic field to generate a circulating flow of electrons that moves in opposing directions from the movement of the disk, creating a repelling or dragging force between the conductor and the magnet.
One of the earliest dynamometers was the de Prony brake, invented by Gaspard de Prony in 1821. Since then, advancements in technology, materials, machining processes and design have led to much more advanced dynamometer systems. Demand for a machine that could take accurate readings of torque led the way for developments and innovations; today's dynos are complex assemblies that can measure performance very accurately. Depending on context, a dynamometer can be very complex or very simple. Chassis dynamometers, for example, are designed for ease of use. A vehicle drives up onto the frame, is strapped in and is ready to begin testing. A computer is used to start the engine and to bring it through the stages of the test. Depending on the software, the progress and results can be charted on a graph or displayed on a screen. Operators may need to be trained in order to learn the software program and to correctly interpret the results. Engine dynos, on the other hand, take the measurements straight from the engine, which requires a different set of equipment. Again, computers are essential for gathering information and reading it. Though some analog dials and gauges are used, they do not report the final measurement. As dynamometers become more automated, the degree of human error decreases and measurements become faster and more accurate. For this reason, dynamometers are helping to improve the world's understanding and use of engines.
Chassis Dynamometer - Taylor Dynamometer, Inc.
Dynamometers - Froude, Inc.
Dynamometers - SAKOR Technologies, Inc.
Dynamometers - PCE Americas, Inc.
Dynamometers - SAKOR Technologies, Inc.
Dynamometers - SAKOR Technologies, Inc.
The importance of dynamometers cannot be overlooked in industrial and mechanical engineering. A dynamometer is a tool that engineers use to measure force, a moment of force (torque), and power, utilized or produced by an engine or motor. There are different types of dynamometers, working on a variety of principles and used for various applications in manufacturing operations. Some of the most common dynamometers are hydraulic dynamometers, chassis dynamometers, eddy current dynamometers, prony brake dynamometers, and rope brake dynamometers.
Some of these electric motor testers are used to determine the power required by an application to run smoothly and others measure the torque or tension applied by the brakes to stop the engine.
In a dynamometer, there is an absorption unit that typically includes a rotor motor. The engine or application to be tested is attached to this rotor. The rotor enables the machine's engine to rotate as per the programmed speed.
Basically, there are three types of dynamometers-motoring, absorbing, and universal. A motoring dyno helps assess and control the torque or power that a machine consumes. Absorbing dynamos absorb the power and their parts help measure the absorbed amount. They are also known as driven or active dynamometers. Universal dynamometers are a combined version of the other two types of dynamometers.
Benefits of Dynamometers
By optimizing these intelligent and useful devices, engineers determine whether or not their machines are working most efficiently. These motor tester devices help in the maintenance and ongoing routines of process equipment. The results provided by these tiny little devices help engineers to yield a greater efficiency and cost savings from industrial equipment.
Selecting the Proper Device
As said earlier, there are different types of dynamometers for different applications and motors. The design and function of these devices change with the application or process they are being used for. A number of devices are designed to be used by hand, while some are larger in size and suitable for industrial purposes. Smaller models are used by engineers, medical professionals, and construction professionals, and the largest models are suitable for industrial use. No matter what today, today's dynamometers include a digital interface that give accurate information about the force or torque measure.
Accuracy of a Device
When it comes to precision in torque measurement, there is no match for dynamos. Whether you want to measure force, torque, or power output/input, dynamometers will provide the most accurate data. You can install these systems with any application, depending on your requirements. However, to attain the most accurate assessment, you will need to make sure that the devices have been installed correctly.
Dynamometers are a type of measuring equipment used to measure the force, or torque, which is a moment of force produced by an engine or motor. Also used as industrial plant and facility equipment, dynamometers measure the force generated by a moving or rotating motor by calculating its torque and rotational speed - which is measured in RPM, runs per minute. In the most common definition, a motorcycle, car, or any given machine cannot work without the force that its engine provides. Dynamometers are devices that measure that force and help test engineers to realize if the machine is working properly. Within industrial machinery applications, force measured in terms of horsepower (HP).
Also known as dyno and dynamos, dynamometers are typical testing equipment used for measuring a certain factor of a mechanism. Dynamos measure an engine's power output and allows test engineers to evaluate if this output is right for the optimum performance of the engine.
Based on their working principles, industrial dynamometers are come in two types: Absorbing Dynamos and Driving Dynamos. However, there are many other types of dynamometers as listed in the following subsections.
Prony Brake Dynamometer: This is a simple device that helps measure the power output or "brake" power. The brake power is a force that is applied by brakes to stop the wheels or rotor. When you apply brakes, a force or weight is applied onto an arm of the rotor. This weight or force tries to stop the motions or rotations of the engine. The Prony Brake Dynamometer measures that force.
Rope Brake Dynamometer: Rope brake dynamometers are used to evaluate the force applied by engine brakes. The rotating drum in the engine that is attached to a rope has multiple rope wounds that rotate alongside the rotating drum. The rope on one end is connected to a spring balance and loading device on the other. This is a type of absorbing dynamometer that absorbs power in the friction that arises between the rope and the drum. The best part of these meters is that they can be systemized easily.
Eddy Current Dynamometer: Eddy current can be labeled as one of the finest dynamometers for mechanical and industrial engineering. The Eddy dynamo contains a series of electromagnets. The rotor includes a metal disc made of copper or steel. The rotor disc is connected with the output shaft of the engine which rotates the disc. The eddy current is generated while the disc rotates. This happens because of the magnetic flux created by the electromagnets in the stator. The eddy current gets consumed while it produces heat. For that reason, there is also some use of mechanical coolant or cooling equipment.
Within industrial plants, eddy current dynamometers offer a number of advantages including high brake power, the highest ratio of constant power speed range, and better torque. In addition to these features, this force calculator device presents very few issues during operation.
A dynamometer is a mechanical device that is used for the measurement of force, power, pressure, or torque. Primarily a tool that engineers and labs use in their day-to-day exercises, dynamometers measure power or force produced by an engine or motor. The engine or motor testers usually have a rotating prime mover, this device calculates the speed or torque attained by the motor.
Dynamometers are also utilized to determine the performance of a motor, because they help engineers to understand the operation or perfect working status of a pump.
Based on their performance, dynamometers can be classified in two categories: passive dynamometers and active dynamometers. The latter category is also referred to as universal dynamometers.
These intelligent tools are also used for testing a number of engine development activities including the calibration of engine management and the detailed analysis of an engine's combustion behavior.
Within the medical industry, handheld dynamometers are used by doctors to screen the grip or strength of hand trauma patients. Another special dynamometer diagnoses the cervical nerve roots and peripheral nerves. Apart from these two applications, medical professionals also use dynamometers to evaluate the overall physical strength of patients.
What is an Absorbing Dynamometer?
Absorbing dynamometers evaluate a load that is transferred by the mover or the motor that is currently being tested. These machines can test the speed or torque at any level of the machine, at any point of time. For that reason, these machines are designed to perform efficiently at different load levels. Though quite close in properties to inertia dynamometers, absorbing dynamometers come furnished with meters that can measure the operating and functioning of torque or force in a mechanism.
In absorbing dynamometers, a power absorption unit absorbs the power given to it by the mover and converts it into heat that is used for the core functions of the machine.
How Does an Absorbing Dynamometer Work?
In an absorbing dynamometer, a water flow, that is strategically calculated to be proportional to the applied load, is used to create resistance for the force of the engine. This controlled water flow is sent to each absorption center through the center of the rotor motor. With centrifugal force which directs the water to the outer sections of the dynamometer, the water starts achieving deceleration. This acceleration and deceleration of the water enables the dynamometer to absorb the power generated by the rotor motor.
Within a data acquisition system, the dynamometer manages and displays readings of torque or force. The data in the dynamometer is captured by the data acquisition system's commander and workstation components. The workstation captures the data and the commander stores and processes the data. How accurately the workstation captures data determines how well the commander displays machine output results.
A dynamometer is a mechanical device which is generally used for measuring the power output, force, and torque of an engine. Different kinds of dynamos are employed by the testing engineers to check the power of a motor; such as absorbing dynamometers, hydraulic dynamometers, brake dynamometers, rope brakes or water brake dynamometers, and eddy current dynamometers.
Types of Dynamometers
Eddy Current Dynamometer - These are electromagnetic load devices that have electromagnets mounted on the stator. Apart from the stator, these dynamometers have a metal disc that rotates via the engine which is being tested. The electromagnetic field of the stator controls the motions or rotation of the disc. The electric or eddy current plays a pivotal role in the accuracy of this motor tester.
Hydraulic Dynamometer - Hydraulic dynamometers work just like a hydraulic pump. The only exception is in their design. These dynamometers have an impeller which is rotated by the engine. The engine's load on the tester can be adjusted by modifying the position of opening and closing valves.
Absorbing Dynamometer - Absorbing dynamometers assess the load only when the load is applied. These dynos are designed to work on a variety of load and speed levels. With these devices, you can measure torque or force at any load or speed level.
Brake Dynamometer - Also known as prony brake dynamometers, these devices are the simplest in design and utility. They apply brakes on a rotating engine and their sensors test the pressure or force applied by the brakes.
Rope Brake Dynamometer - This device has a rotating drum connected to a rope within their engines. Their rope wings rotate with the rotating drum.
Testing with Dynamometers
To test the performance of an engine, test engineers need to thoroughly understand the dynamometer's operating instructions. A dynamometer controller is an electronic unit that enables engineers to control the load pressure on an engine. By gaining control over the control panel, you can measure the speed of and load on the engine. You can set the control panel to work for either Speed Control or Load Control.
For engine testing, various tests can be carried out using a good quality dynamometer or torque tester. When testing engine performance, make sure to perform the test with a wide open throttle. You should also ensure that the test is being performed in Speed Control mode. During the initial stage of the test, the speed should be set at a low level to measure the engine speed and torque. Then, the speed level can be increased. After the increase, the performance measurement should be noted. This process should be repeated until the desired speed has been achieved or set.
During power or force measurement testing, it is important to provide adequate cooling to the engine. This practice helps to mitigate the problems caused by overheating. Cool air can be provided by fans and other cooling mechanisms. Some large industrial processes may need a cool air flow, flowing at 25 mph. To avoid hazards or inaccuracy in testing assessments, you should consider testing the temperature during the run of the machine.
- Temperature of the surrounding medium.
A vibration reading of a piece of equipment in good operating condition.
The baseline becomes a reference point for testing and monitoring.
- The part of a motor vehicle that includes the engine, the frame, the suspension system, the wheels and the steering mechanism, but not the body.
- The letter on AC motor nameplates that signifies the locked rotor kilovolt amperes per horsepower at rated frequency and voltage.
- A machine that measures the power by absorption derived from an internal combustion engine.
- The RPM for an engine or generator, which is available at torque capacity.
- For an engine or generator, it refers to the torque necessary to produce its rated horsepower at full load speed.
- Unit of rate of doing work. One horsepower equals about 550 foot-pounds per second or 746 watts.
- Any motion or movement that is not in a straight line but remains constant in velocity.
- The lowest torque that an engine will produce from a standstill position, as measured from all angular positions of the rotor with rated voltage applied at rated frequency.
- The product of the torque available to do work times the rated RPM
- The rotating part of a motor or engine.
- Unit of measurement to determine power and torque.
- The act of acceleration.
- The measure of the force applied to produce rotational motion, usually measured in foot-pounds.
- The gears that transmit power from an automobile engine via the driveshaft to the live axle.
- A reading of the variation in the measurement of data over no less than three data measurement intervals.
- The rate of change of position in relation to time.
- The position of the pedal that allows the maximum amount of air to pass into the intake manifold.