Bolts are inserted into industrial material in multiple ways. Bolts can be engaged with the use of handheld screwdrivers, high pressure drills and allen wrenches. The nut, which attaches to the end of the shank, is almost always hexagonal in shape. The military and aircraft industries have specific bolt standards that require special anti-corrosive coatings and materials. These bolts are tested under more rigorous conditions, and therefore, are the preferred standard of the respective industries. Bolts are used in nearly every industry, specifically in building construction and automotive manufacturing. In the United States, most bolts are measured by the American Measuring System. However, Europe and Asia use the Metric System. Recently, metric bolts have become more popular in the United States because of international businesses that need parts that are compatible with products from other countries. Bolts come in many different sizes, shapes and materials. Anchor bolts, J bolts, stud bolts, expansion bolts, lag bolts, U bolts, eye bolts, hex bolts and shoulder bolts all have different specific uses and defining shapes and are commonly found in warehouse stock inventory.
The manufacturing process to create standard metal bolts out of stainless steel, titanium or aluminum takes many steps. Stainless steel is often chosen for the manufacturing of bolts because of its strength. First, a steel wire rod is heated in a furnace for 30 hours and bathed in sulfuric acid to remove any rust particles. It is also coated with phosphate that prevents rusting and acts as a lubricant. The rods are then formed by cold forging, where the rod is shaped at room temperature using high pressure. It is forced through dyes and shaped into long, perfectly round rods. After they are cut into shorter pieces, the rods go through a dye that shapes a head on one end. The threading on the other end is done by another cold forging method using high pressure rollers that press in the thread pattern.
Bolt manufacturers designate bolts by the major diameter of the external thread and the pitch measurement. A thread is a ridge that wraps around the outside of a cylinder in a helical pattern. The ridge itself is called the crest, while the space between the ridges is called the root. Threads are set at an angle to the axis of the bolt and slope either upward to the right (for right-hand threaded screws) or upward to the left (for left-handed threaded screws). The slope of the thread is known as the helix angle. The thread forms a V-shaped angle between the crest, called the thread angle, which is determined by fastener engineers. The distance from one crest of one thread to another crest is called the pitch and is measured along the axis of the thread with a thread pitch gauge. Bolts are further classified by bolt manufacturers according to the type of the top portion, called the head. The head comes in a variety of shapes and styles. Flat heads are used where finished surfaces require a flush face. Round heads were commonly used in the past, but are now being replaced by newer designs, such as pan heads. Oval heads require the hole to be countersunk. Binding heads are undercut, bound and eliminate the fraying of stranded wire in electrical and radio work. Truss heads, also known as oven, stove or oval binding heads, are used to cover large diameter clearance holes in sheet metal.
Anchor bolts are generally embedded in concrete and used to anchor columns or other supports to a foundation or for construction and in securing traffic signal poles. U bolts are named for their shape-they are bent bolts with threads at both ends. They may be round, square or semi-round and used when suspended items need to be attached to the surface of something. U bolts are common in the construction and automotive industries. Eye bolts are threaded at one end and have a circular eye at the other, instead of a head. The eye is used to guide a cable, rope or chain for lifting purposes. Eye bolts are common in aircraft construction. J bolts are also named for their shape, a letter J, or half of a U bolt. They are used as cast-in-place anchor bolts and often made of steel or titanium. Stud bolts are round metal bars with screw threads at both ends or on the whole thing. Expansion bolts consist of a taper-headed bolt, lead sleeve, metal cone and a nut. They are used to secure theatre, auditorium, stadium and classroom seating to the floor. They have attachments that expand as the bolt is driven into a surface. Lag bolts are heavy woodscrews that have a hexagonal or square head and are usually driven into wooden beams or posts by a wrench. Hex bolts are very common and usually made of metal and used with a washer. They are named for the six sides on the bolt head. Finally, shoulder bolts pivot mounting shafts that are not threaded all the way up-it stops before the head, leaving a smooth-sided shaft that is usually a little wider than the threaded part. They can be square or round and are generally made out of stainless steel.
Bolt Companies - Hercules Fasteners
Bolts Manufacturers - Nord-Lock/Superbolt, Inc.
Bolt Companies - Ken Forging
Bolts Manufacturers - Hercules Fasteners
Bolt Companies - Nord-Lock/Superbolt, Inc.
Industrial bolts are a type of threaded fasteners that need nuts to secure surfaces or components together. There is another type of threaded fastener called screw, which has a construction similar to industrial bolts. The similarity leads to confusion, and thus, many people use both of these terms interchangeably.
Therefore, efforts have been made by standardizing bodies to differentiate industrial bolts and screws. According to the Machinery's Handbook, screws and bolts can be distinguished based on the intended purpose. Industrial bolts are used for fastening unthreaded components with the use of nuts, whereas screws are utilized for securing components that have its own thread, and when threads are not present, screw itself makes threads in a component during installation. For this purpose, screws are typically tapered, which makes threading easy in components when torque is applied to the screw.
This is a major difference between bolts and screws. However, many times, their features and use overlaps. Therefore, the definition is still ambiguous and only provides a basic difference.
Therefore, we are discussing the parts and installation of industrial bolts to remove the confusion.
Industrial bolts commonly have three sections: head, shank, and chamfer.
The diameter of the head is the largest, and it acts as a mount where tools, based on the operation, either apply or resist torque. The head also functions as a bearing surface that holds the substrate from one side. Different industrial bolts, such as shoulder bolts, J bolts, hex bolts, anchor bolts, and U bolts, have different types of heads, including, square shouldered head, indented hexagonal head, hexagonal washer head, trimmed hexagon head, and flanged hexagonal head.
A square-shouldered head has a truss head on a square shank that is especially designed to resist the motion. Indented hexagon heads are designed in conjunction with standard wrench dimensions and have a depression on the head. As the name implies, a hexagonal washer head has a built-in washer, which protects the assembly from disfigurement during installation. Trimmed hexagon heads are found in a standard bolt; it has clean and sharp corners.
The shank is the shaft of the bolt on which helical threads are made externally. It is the longest part of a bolt and aligns the components when they are fastened.
The end of a bolt where nut is fastened is called the chamfer. For aiding the insertion of bolt into the hole of nut, the chamfer is slightly beveled.
For installing industrial bolts, a nut is required for retaining components on the axis of a bolt, and the nut is bolted on through an angular force produced by a tool while the bolt is held in its place, or conversely, force is applied to the bolt head and the nut is held on its place. When the bolt is secured, the internal threads of the nut go over the external thread of the bolt, and in the process, the bolt is slightly stretched and the components too are slightly deformed.
Industrial bolts are one of those components that can be found in almost all type of machinery. Whether it is military, construction, automotive, civil engineering, petrochemical, or architectural industry, industrial bolts are the items that keep different components together. As bolts are utilized in various industries, each having different needs, it has become important to employ many metals for making different grades of bolts.
The materials used to manufacture industrial bolts include aluminum, brass, copper alloys, plastics, steel, and titanium.
Industrial bolts are used for securing different types of components, and evidently, a single design cannot be enough for all application. Thus, a range of industrial bolts is available on the market.
In shoulder bolts, a significant portion of the shank is unthreaded and has larger diameter than the threaded portion. Shoulder bolts are also known as shoulder screws.
This type of bolt has a rounded head, but the collar is square, which fits in a hole and prevents twisting when it is being installed. They are primarily used for joining wood.
These bolts have a flat head with a square collar, which keeps it in place when it is tightened. These have application in conveyor systems.
These bolts have an integral washer, which helps in distributing bearing weight and eliminates the disfigurement of the material that is being bolted.
The common types of bolts that have a hexagon head and the shank is threaded throughout the length.
Other than these bolts, J-bolts, cold-headed parts, anchor bolts, U-bolts, and metric bolts are also available for specific applications.
No industrial bolts have the same characteristics. Over the time, various types of bolts with distinct metals have been developed for meeting different criteria. For diverse applications, including structural building, furniture building, and machinery, a number of industrial bolts are available such as shoulder bolts, J-bolts, hex bolts, anchor bolts, and U-bolts.
However, the presence of various options makes it hard for buyers to select an appropriate bolt. The task of buying a bolt is daunting and requires consideration of an array of factors.
Therefore, to help buyers, we are discussing the factors that need to be weighed accordingly before making a buying decision.
The first step for a purchaser is to determine the environment where the industrial bolts will be installed. The environment will help you to know the conditions a bolt will be exposed to. For example, if a bolt is used in an industrial setup, then it could be exposed to a corrosive environment, chemically active environment, and high temperatures, depending on the type of the industry.
Once the environment is determined, it becomes easier to select the material that will be appropriate for your purpose. For example, brass or copper alloy industrial bolts are used in facilities where the environment is magnetized. The low magnetic permeability of brass and copper make them appropriate for such conditions.
Materials that are used for making industrial bolts are aluminum, plastic, titanium, and steel. Aluminum is required when bolts are needed to be light, whereas plastic is used when loads are not heavy. The most common material, though, is steel, which comes in three variations-standard, hardened, and stainless. Typically, most bolts are made from standard steel, which is strong but has low resistance to corrosion for which nowadays they are coated to make them corrosion resistant. The other variations have better resistance but are expensive.
You need to determine what size of bolts you need. However, that can be a little tricky, as two measuring systems are available: standard and metric.
You need to know the diameter of a bolt; in the metric system, it starts from 10mm and then gradually moves upwards. In the standard system, the diameter is measured in inches, and it starts from one-fourth of an inch.
The measurement of threads in a bolt is also essential for a buyer. In the standard system, threads are measured in per inch, whereas in the metric system, the thread pitch is measured. Thread pitch is the distance between adjacent pitches.
The length of a bolt is another aspect that you need to know about. While measuring it, the head should be left out, and only the shank part should be measured.
Types of Bolts
As different types of bolts are designed for specific purposes and applications, it is necessary for you to know the application. For example, a bolt used in masonry is called anchor bolt that anchors structures. Similarly, carriage bolt is used for bolting wood and metal together; it has a square collar that holds the bolt in place when it is bolted. Moreover, for every bolt, a complementary nut is required. Therefore, always buy bolts and nuts together, so the probability of mismatch remains low.
Industrial bolts are high-strength threaded hardware that are used for fastening two or more work pieces together. To many people, a bolt may look like a simple hardware that is employed for aligning things in relation to each other; however, bolts have played a significant role in the evolution of sophisticated machines since the times of Archimedes.
Around 200 BCE, Archimedes invented a large bolt or screw pump, making use of the screw principle. The pump consisted of a screw with helical threads engraved on a shaft and fitted inside a tube. The pump revolutionized irrigation, as water could be raised from low-lying water bodies. However, there is historical evidence that shows Archimedes had visited Egypt where he saw wooden screw pumps being used for irrigation and that he only brought the technology to Greece.
Other historians give credit of threaded screw to another Greek great, Archytas of Tarentum, who, according to them, came with the idea of threaded bolt 200 years before Archimedes.
However, the modern bolts came into existence a lot later in the 15th century when a German publisher, Johann Gutenberg, used bolts to fasten his printing presses. Bolts or screws then were gradually used in other equipment, including armor and clocks. With the increasing need of screws or bolts, bolt-cutting machines were also developed. In Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks, designs for screw machines are found, which show how bolts played a major role even in that century.
Screw or bolts, however, were still made and used at a small scale and the real momentum for the bolts industry was the advent of Industrial Revolution. With the Industrial Revolution, industrial bolts became an important component in the engineering world.
Even in the 18th century, the threads of industrial bolts were made manually and, as the demand increased, it became important to cut the production time. This led to the invention of thread cutting machines, clearing the way for the mass production of screws. However, different companies had their own standards for manufacturing threads of industrial bolts due to which an array of different sized screw threads was available on the market. With the absence of standardized screw threads for industrial bolts, machinery manufacturers were facing problems.
To solve this problem, in 1841, Joseph Whitworth, an English engineer, came with the idea of standardizing the size of the screw threads in industrial bolts. He recommended a standardized angle of the thread flanks and numbers of threads per inch. His efforts brought change in the industrial bolts industry in Britain, and concurrently, across the Atlantic Ocean, similar efforts were seen, which made bolts threads standardized for specific diameter.
However, the American standardization approach had one advantage over the British approach, as Americans standardization made the manufacturing of the item easy.
The Second World War brought the Americans, the British, and the Canadians on the same page regarding bolts manufacturing. They agreed on a standard in which all countries used imperial measurements. The unified standard stated that flank angle should be 60 degrees, the crests should be flat, and the bolts would have rounded root, which improved fatigue performance.
- Dry lubricants that are comprised of suspensions of solid lubricants of small particle size, such as graphite or PTFE.
- A compound that is applied to the threads of fasteners and whose purpose depends on the application. Anti-seize compounds can prevent galling or mating surfaces, improve corrosion resistance or provide a barrier to water penetration by sealing the threads.
- The surface pressure acting on a joint face, resulting from the clamping force applied by a fastener.
- A term that refers to the comparatively wider tolerances employed in the manufacturing of nuts and bolts, not necessarily the color of the surface finish.
- The compressive force exerted on a joint by a fastener.
- The measure of the degree of fit between mating external and internal threads. There are three main Classes of Fit for metric screw threads: fine, medium and coarse.
- The permanent deformation of a bolt or other fastener resulting from the application of stress and heat.
- Forming threads on a fastener by cutting away and actually removing the unneeded metal.
The degree of difference between the centers of the surface of a bolt
at different points.
- The fracture resistance of bolts during subjection to stress variations.
thickness of all materials that a bolt is designed to secure.
- The top portion of a bolt. A head also refers to the portion of a fastener that forms its largest diameter.
material(s) that the fastener (bolt) connects together.
- A small metal piece with a hole in the center that fits over a bolt or over the end of a bolt. Nuts are often hexagonal (6-sided) in shape.
- The amount of force required to pull the fastener out of the base material.
- The portion of a headed fastener that lies between the head and the point.
- The amount of longitudinal load/elongation a fastener can withstand without failure of the fastener or joint.
- A raised helical pattern going around the shank of a bolt. The thread is measured by pitch, which is the distance from one peak of the thread to the next, expressed in mm or threads per inch.
- The amount of force at which a threaded fastener, an insert or nut begins to strip or otherwise fail in a joint.