The term "pollution control equipment" refers to a diverse set of equipment with the goal of removing and eliminating an equally diverse variety of pollutants from the surrounding environment. Such pollutants, which include sulfuric odors, gases and vapors, are called hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic pollutants (VOCs). These kind of pollutants most often enter Earth's atmosphere via the performance of industrial manufacturing processes, which create harmful byproducts like solvent fumes, hydrocarbons, halogenated waste and other hazardous toxins that should not be allowed into the air or human lungs. Because of the risks posed to the health and wellbeing of the planet and its inhabitants, regulatory agencies like the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) either encourage or make mandatory the use of of air pollution control equipment. Manufacturers that use air pollution control equipment are doing their part to keep harmful emissions low and maintained at levels that are not detrimental to health.
Different settings call for different types of pollution control equipment. Note that pollution control equipment, also known as emission control systems, has applications all over the industries of commercial, domestic and industrial manufacturing, as well as in biological research, medicine, printing, automotives and more. Each industry and application releases unique toxins, odors or particulates of their own, forcing the need for diverse pollution control solutions. Generally speaking, pollution control equipment works through acts of absorption, extraction, filtration or a combination of all three. The most common types of industrial pollution control equipment are: air scrubbers, wet scrubbers, mist collectors and electrostatic precipitators. These all employ multiple pollution control techniques. Following these are the simpler oxidizers and air filtration systems.
Air scrubbers purify air streams within enclosed spaces like laboratories and textile mills; they can also be used to clean air in smelly basements and flooded or fire-damaged homes. Primarily, air scrubbers target chemicals, gases and particles, working either through dry scrubbing or wet scrubbing. Dry scrubbers collect chemicals and particulates by first introducing a dry reagent or slurry into a dirty exhaust stream or a gas stream, which catches larger contaminants, then forcing the stream through filters to catch smaller contaminants. Wet scrubbers, on the other hand, collect contaminants inside liquid droplets, then clean them using either absorption in a saturation pool or dissolution in a liquid spray. Users may enhance the performance of their wet scrubbers by adding in chemical solutions to the liquid agent. Additional filters can also be used boost efficiency both before and after the initial cleaning. Also known as demisters or mist eliminators, mist collectors are made to specifically target mists and vapors within an air stream, such as smoke, coolant, oil, abrasives and water. Most often, they are utilized by industries and applications in which space and weight savings are highly important, and/or where vapor quality is key. Such industries and applications include: agriculture, paper and pulp, food processing, brine desalination, chemical processing and metal finishing and forming. Electrostatic precipitators, or ESPs, are highly efficient, quality-achieving pollution control equipment that work through ionization. Particulates in the air are charged inductively with an electric field as metal tubes or plates, called collection tubes or collection plates, respectively, are charged with a negative voltage. The opposing charges attract, causing the particulates to stick to the collection tubes or plates. Once this happens, they are shaken, tapped, rapped or conditioned and rinsed into a bin for disposal or recycling. This method of pollution control is employed primarily by industries that produce a lot of smoke, dust and debris, industries like: material handling, textile manufacturing, petroleum processing, chemical processing, electronics and general manufacturing and machining. Oxidizers perform cleaning simply, by heating air that has been forced into a main chamber with a catalyst, until the contaminants within it either burn or undergo a chemical reaction, and then convert into less harmful byproducts that can be filtered further or disposed. Oxidizers are occasionally small enough for use in automotive exhaust systems. However, they are usually very large and used only with high emission industries like: agriculture, food processing, printing, paper and pulp, painting, pharmaceuticals and polymer and resin manufacturing. Air filtration systems trap a wide pollutants and other impurities in filters. They may aim to capture, dissolve or destroy pollutants. Common pollutants include: bacteria, pollen, mold, dust, metallic powder and gases and chemicals. Air filtration systems serve a wide variety of applications; they may be designed with any number of porosity, flow rate, filter length, pressure drop and ply and efficiency requirements in mind. Air filtration systems serve many industries, including: food and chemical processing, pharmaceutical, laboratory, clean room, electronics and commercial and residential ventilation.
Pollution Control Equipment - Catalytic Products International, Inc.
Pollution Control Equipment - Catalytic Products International, Inc.
The quality of a person's life depends on many different factors; among them is the environment in which he or she lives in. An environment with clean air is the most conducive to health and keeps people free from many air-borne diseases.
With the advancement of science and emergence of new technologies, many things we do in our day-to-day life have become easier. However, decades of rapid industrialization and urbanization as well as lack of proactive measures have bought a massive problem: pollution. Burning of fossil fuels and smoke released by vehicles and chimneys all aggravates the problem. The benefits that came from the leapfrogs in science and technology are not translating into quality of life for all. Rising levels of pollution, especially air pollution, is robbing us off those benefits.
Industries have been a major polluter. Industrialized nations together with emerging economies, where industrial activities have picked up in recent couple of decades, have exacerbated the problem even further. Whether it is due to dust and chemicals released during mining operations or it is due to the chemicals and smoke emanating from factories, lack of effective policies, poor enforcement, unplanned industrial growth and outdated technologies have led to the increasing air pollution level. That is why it is very important for all industries and factories to use highly effective industrial air pollution control devices that can provide effective air pollution control and improve the environment.
Some of the popular and effective industrial air pollution control technologies that are widely used in different parts of the world are-
A mist collector is a device that collects dust and other impurities from air or gas released from the factory and enhances the quality of the air. Also known as dust collector, they separate particulate matter from the air before releasing it into the atmosphere. They are often used to collect mists from the air generated by coolants and oil during metalworking.
Air filters used in building ventilation systems and in engines are composed of fibrous materials that separate and removes solid particulates such as dust, pollen, mold, fungi and pathogens from the air. They help in improving the indoor air quality or air releasing from the automobile engines.
Wet scrubber is a kind of industrial scrubber that removes air particulates from exhaust steams from industrial machines. In a wet scrubber, all toxic and corrosive compounds released from exhaust gases are neutralized. Besides this scrubber, there are dry scrubbers that help in checking air pollution.
Installation, repair and maintenance of proper air filtration systems in all industries that release gases in the air must be made mandatory for controlling the air pollution level and improving the atmosphere. Besides this, existing equipment that contributes to air pollution reduction can be modified to reduce the amount of pollutants released into the air. These systems must be properly maintained and all comprehensive measures should be taken to reduce air pollution to make the world a better place to live in.
Different pollution control equipment use different techniques to control pollutants, for instance, electrostatic precipitators use electrostatic charge to remove dust and smoke, and mist collectors utilize filters of different types to remove aerosols. Carbon adsorbers, designed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) control, employ a phenomenon called adsorption to remove VOCs from low to medium concentration, exhaust gas streams.
So, what is adsorption?
Adsorption is a phenomenon, where ions, atoms or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid adhere to a solid surface, through attractive forces that are weaker, and are unlike chemical bonds. In terms of air pollution control, in the adsorption process, gas molecules migrate from the exhaust gas stream to the surface of the solid. The molecules remain on the surface, as the molecules make weak chemical bonds-chemisorption-with the adsorbent surface groups.
What increases the adsorptive capacity of the solid for the gas?
The adsorbents used in the pollution control equipment, include synthetic zeolites, silica gel, activated carbon, and activated alumina. However, activated carbon is used most extensively across all control devices.
At present, two types of adsorption equipment are used most commonly, fixed-bed and cannister systems.
Fixed-bed units that employ activated carbon as an adsorbent, work well with continuous, VOC-containing exhaust streams, with variable flow rates, which can range from few hundred to several hundred thousand cubic feet per minute. Moreover, with this system, the exhaust streams can be treated that have VOC concentration as low as several parts per billion by volume (ppmv), though, only in case of some toxic chemicals. They are also applicable, when the VOC concentration of streams is as high as 25% of the VOCs' lower explosive limit.
Fixed-bed adsorbers operate either in intermittent or in continuous modes.
In intermittent operation, as the name implies, removes compounds only for a specified time, which usually corresponds with the operation of the controlled source. When it does not remove inorganic compounds, the unit begins the desorption cycle, that removing the captured VOC.
Continuous operation units have regenerated carbon beds that are always on for the adsorption process. There is no need of shutdown to remove the VOC from the carbon, as in such designs, two beds are available, when one adsorbes the VOCs, the other desorbes. In this type of design, twice as much of carbon is used than an intermittent system, having the same flow.
As the name suggests, cannister-type adsorbers are returnable and relatively smaller containers with capacity of about 55-gallon drums, however, larger system are also available. The cannister units consist of:
Their use is usually limited for controlling intermittent gas streams with lower-volume. They are typically used for controlling VOC in the storage tank vents, where off-site regeneration makes better economic sense. The carbon cannisters are desorbed at off-site, normally at a central reclamation facility.
When the carbon in the cannister reaches certain VOC content, the controlled unit is shutdown, and the cannister is replaced or the carbon is changed. The canister then goes back to reclamation facility.
Air pollution is the primary reason behind a number of problems the world is facing today. Diseases and infections, especially those that have to do with air and water, deterioration of the ozone layer, global warming, etc. are a few of the prevalent aftermaths of pollution. Until the last decade, only the outdoor pollution was considered a problem. Nowadays, the indoor environment of our homes and offices too cannot be pronounced safe for inhabiting. To deal with the epidemic of air and water pollution, most people have started using pollution control equipment.
Some of these devices are vacuum cleaners, air conditioning systems, air pollution scrubbers (used in air conditioners), and air and water filters. These instruments are for home purposes only. However, their high-capacity commercial and industrial versions are also available on the market. For hardcore industrial purposes, electrostatic precipitators, air and wet scrubbers, thermal oxidizers, etc. are used.
To keep these smart machines up and running, their adequate and timely maintenance is the prime need. Proper care of appliances increases their life, while improving their routine performance. The following tricks and tips help extend the life of pollution control equipment.
Create a maintenance plan. Home users do not need a detailed maintenance plan. Homeowners just have to ensure timely delivery of their appliances' upkeep requirements. On the other hand, commercial and industrial machines need to be kept under the supervision of maintenance experts. In addition, the conservation tasks should be performed according to a proper maintenance plan. A maintenance plan should cover a detailed list of appliances and their parts, previous maintenance records, necessary daily/weekly/monthly procedures, system monitoring, and cleanliness. Training the staff to handle the maintenance is one of the foremost requirements. It will assure that your equipment is in safe hands.
Test pollution control equipment often. This task, however simple it may look, is a tricky one and needs to be accomplished by an experienced individual. Most industrial pollution control devices have rollers, ducting, cylinders that experience a slowdown in their speed, because of which they do not carry out how they should. Also, they consume more fuel (oil and gas); it again adds to their emissions. These machine parts need to be greased on a regular basis to ensure smooth running.
Review the readings of the machines. You should regularly audit the interpretations provided by your machines to have closer look at how well and accurately they are serving their duty.
Mount test alarms. Installing test alarms can also be an effective measure if you want to avert assigning the tasks of monitoring to individuals. Smart alarm systems can be programmed to adjudge the performance of pollution control devices. Additionally, they will also keep a track of their runtime and production.
Keep environment protection guidelines in consideration. Each country/state has its own guidelines for environment procurement. When selecting a pollution control device for your home/office/manufacturing plant, you should have these guidelines in your mind.